Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 20
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ALA    20    ALB

covered with cypress and gum trees, and the up-
lands with long leaved pine. These pine swells
and levels have a very thin soil, with a substra-
tum of clay. They produce without the aid of
manure, two or three crops of maize and one or
two of cotton. Among the pine grows a rank
grass furnishing a line and inexhaustible summer
feed. The alluvions on the Alabama and Tom-
beckbee rivers are generally wide and first rate
lands, and this species of soil on all the streams
is generally productive. The hammock lands
constitute an intermediate belt between the bot-
toms and pina ridges. They generally have a
slope like a glacis. In the best lands, no pines
are to be seen. In second rate land, they are
intermixed with dogwood, hickory and oak.
Along the southern limit the soil is thin, and the
unvarying verdure of the pine, beautiful as it is
in itself, tires by its uniformity. Oil the head
waters of the Escambia and Conecuh, are groves
of orange trees. On approaching Florida, the
swamps become more and more extensive. Cy-
press lands are abundant. On the alluvial ground
which is not inundated, is large and rank cane.
In these drowned regions the moschetoes are very
annoying. In going toward the central part of
the State, the lands become high and broken, and
the pines less frequent; oak, hickory and poplar

The climate generally is favourable to health
compared with the southern country in the same
parallels. The lower part of the State is con-
stantly fanned during the summer heats, by the
trade wind. There is hardly such a season as
winter, yet the summers are not hotter than many
degrees farther N. In the northern parts, the
stagnant waters often freeze. In the S. snow or
ice is seldom seen. Cattle require no shelter
during winter, and maize is planted early in

Cotton is the staple production of Alabama.
Sugar, rice and tobacco are also cultivated. Many
of the people about Mobile are shepherds, and
have large droves of cattle. Swine are raised
with great ease where they can be guarded from
the wolves, cougars and alligators. The small
breed of Indian horses are ugly, but hardy and
strong. Alabama exported in 3828, 1,174,737
dollars value of domestic produce; and imported
merchandize to the amount of 171,909 dollars.

This State in 1800, had only 2,000 inhabitants.
No part of the southern or western country has
had a more rapid increase of population. The
people began to pay attention to the business of
schools and education, though seminaries of learn-
ing and literary institutions are rare. The uni-
versity of Alabama is at Tuscaloosa.

Alabama, r. is the eastern branch of the Mobile,
and is formed by the junction of the Coosa and
Talapoosa. It is navigable by large vessels 100
m. above Mobile Bay. Beyond this it affords
a good boat navigation 150 m. further. This river
gives its name to the State.

Alachua, a prairie in E. Florida, about 70 m. W
of St. Augustine. It is level and grassy, but
barren of trees and shrubs. It is 16 m. in length
and consists of a sandy soil surrounded with high
hills covered with orange trees.

Alwkdia, a maritime province of Asiatic Tur-
key, bounded on the S. by the N. E. extremity of
the Levant sea. The chief town is Adana.

Alaman, a town in Switzerland, in the canton
of Bern, 9 m. N. E. of Nion.

Aland, a cluster of islands in the Baltic, at the
entrance of the Gulf of Bothnia. The principal
island, from which the rest take their names, is
40 m. long, and near 16 broad ; and is 95 m. N. E.
of Stockholm. Pop. about 12,000. Long. 20.28
E. lat. 60. 10. N. They were ceded with Fin-
land, by Sweden to Russia, in the treaty of 1809.












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Alais, a town of France, in the department of
Gard. It has a citadel, and is seated near the
river Gard, at the foot of the Cevennes, 28 m
N. W. of Nismes. Long. 2. 54. lat. 44. 8. N.

Alarcon, a town of Spain, in New Castile. It
is seated on the Xucar, 50 m. S. of Cuenca.

Alatamaha,, or Altamaha, a river of Georgia,
U. S. formed by the Oakmulgee and Oconee, two
long streai:. s which rise in the northern part of
the State. It flows into the sea by several moutim
at St. Simon’s Sound, 60 m. from Savannah. It is
navigable 300 m. to Milledgeville on the Oconee,
for boats of 30 tons, and including its longest
branch is 500 m. in length. Its mouth is barred
by a shoal on which there is a depth of 14 feet of
water at low tide.

Alatyr, a town of Russia, on the river Sura, 40
m. E. of Kasan.

Manta, a river of European Turkey, which ri-
ses in the mountains that separate Moldavia, from
Transylvania, flows through Wallachia, and en-
ters the Danube, near Nicopolis.

Alba, a town of Piedmont, in Montserrat, and an
ancieni bishopric. It contains three parochial
and three other churches, besides the cathedral,
and seven convents. It is seated on the Tanaro,
20 m. S. E. of Turin.

Albania, a maritime province of European Tur-
key, 240 m. long, and 60 broad ; bounded on the
xe2x96xa0N. by Dalmatia and Bosnia, E. by Macedonia and
Janna, S. by Livadia and W. by the Adriatic and
Ionian seas. It produces excellent wines. It
was formerly an independent kingdom. Durazzo
is the capital.

Albono, a town of Italy, on a lake of the same
name, in Campagna di Roma. The environs
produce the best wine in all this country. It is
15 m. S. S. E. of Rome.

Albano, a town of Naples, in Basilicata, on the
river, Basiento, 15 m. E. by S. of Potenza.

Alhanopolis, a town of European Turkey, for-
merly the capital of Albania, but now a poor
place, seated on the Drino, 43 m. E. of Alessio.

Albans, St., a borough town in Hertfordshire,
distinguished in every period of English history.
It was once the metropolis of Britain, and on the
invasion of the country by the Romans, became
one'of'their most important stations, they gave it
the name of Verulam, and by the privileges con-
ferred upon it, so attached the native inhabitants
to their interest, as to excite the vengeance of
Queen Boadicea, who massacred 70,000 of them,
after which she was completely defeated by Sue-
tonius Paulinus, the then Roman governor of
Britain. St. Albans again became tranquil, and
flourished till the Diocletian persecution, about
the commencement of the 4th century, when is
became distinguished for the martyrdom of its
saint, whose name the town at present bears.
After this period, St. Albans declined, till in the
9th century Offa, king of the Mercians, in expia-
tion for his unprovoked murder of St. Ethelhert,
king of the East Angles, whom he had invited
to his court to be his son-in-law, erected and en-
dowed a most magnificent abbey and monastery
for Benedictine monks. After this period, St. Al-
bans experienced various alternations of fortune
till the final dissolution of its monastery in the


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