Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 589
Click on the image to view a larger, bitmap (.bmp) image suitable for printing.


Click on the image above for a larger, bitmap image suitable for printing.

PEN    G89    PEN

around the head streams of the Ohio, is generally

The most important mineral is anthracite coal,
in which this state far surpasses all other portions
of the country. In no part of the world, indeed,
is this valuable material found so abundantly as
in Pennsylvania. It abounds in the Wyoming
and Lackawanna valley, between the Blue Ridge
and the Susquehanna. The anthracite district is
principally occupied by mountains running paral-
lel to the Blue Ridge, often broad, with table sum-
mits, and rising generally about 1,500 feet above
the ocean.

The coal occurs in the greatest quantity in
those parts of this region most accessible by water.
Extensive veins and beds range from the Lehigh
, to the Susquehanna, crossing the head waters of
Schuylkill and Swatara, about 10 m. N. W. ofthe
Blue Ridge. It is abundant near the Susquehan-
na, and Lackawanna, but in no part is it so plen-
tiful as at Mauch Chunk, a village on the Lehigh,
a branch of the Susquehanna.

The anthracite region of the Susquehanna lies
in the. valley formed by the Susquehanna and the
Lackawanna, one of its branches; this region
is distinguished as the valleys of the Wyoming
and Lackawanna, but is in fact without any nat-
ural division, and constitutes a single formation.
It is between 69 and 70 m. long, and 5 broad.

The coal lies in beds, and not as commonly, in
veins; these are of every thickness, from a foot
to 27 feet; none are much esteemed that are less
than three or four ; few are wrought that are less
6. The lateral extent of the beds is immense;
they break out in the precipices and hills, and
upon the banks of the Susquehanna and Lack-
awanna, and form in some places the, pave-
ment of these rivers; they, appear in the sides
and channels of almost every stream from the
mountain ; they blacken the soil in numerous
places ; and wells are often sunk in the coal.
In many of the mines of this region, the
naturalist is gratified by seeing vast deposits of
vegetable impressions and remains which accom-
pany the coal, usually in the slate which forms
the roof, and occasionally in that of the floor;
they exist also in the sandstone, and sometimes
even in the coal itself. There are instances where
they fill the slate for a space of ten feet in thick-
ness. The impressions are very perfect, indica-
ing repose and calm at the time of their deposi-
tion. and excluding the possibility of transport
from distant countries.

There are many species of ferns, none of them,
it is said. m’ffiern, and most or all. tropical.
There are impressions sometimes several feet long
and of the same width, of the bark of gigantic
vegetables : some botanists say they are palms ;
occasionally there are entire limbs carbonized,
and there are frequently broad leaves
6 or 7 in-
ches in diameter. Culmiferous plants are nu-
merous. and also the aquatic algae and rushes ;
the leaves of tbe plants are usually in full expan-
sion, the most delicate parts of their structure be-
ing accurately preserved or copied. Large quan-
tities of clay and iron and bog ore are connected
with the coil strata of this valley, and chalybeate
mineral springs occur in numerous places.

The western part of Pennsylvania is as abun-
dantly supplied with bituminous coal as the east-
ern is with anthracite. It is found on the rivers
Oonemaugh, Alleghany, Monongahela and Ohio,
and in numerous places W. of the Alleghany
ridge, which is, with some executions, its eastern

boundary. It occurs upon these mountains at a
considerable elevation, and elsewhere, in nearly a
horizontal position, alternating with grey sand
stone, often micaceous, and bordered by argillace-
ous schist. The veins are generally narrow,rarely
6 feet in width. The coal is abundant,
and of excellent quality near Pittsburg.

Springs holding salt in solution, are common
in various parts of the bituminous coal region ;
they are generally weak near the surface, but
deep springs, disclosed hy boring, are often strong.
One of these, which contains as much salt as the
ordinary waters of Salina, was discovered by
boring, ahout 20 m. from Montrose, bordering on
the state of New York. The most considerable
saline springs are on the banks of the Cone-
maugh and Kiskaminitas,ahout 30 m. E. ol Pitts-
burg. These rivers for many miles wind rapidly
through rocky ravines bordered by hills of 300
and 400 feet in height, that rise with steep ac-
clivities, presenting mural precipices of grey sand-
stone, in places jutting over the road and torrent.
The sandstone is ordinarily fine, but is sometimes
a coarse aggregate, principallv quartz. Its thin
laminae are generally in a horizontal position.
The lower strata, often in a decomposing state,
contains vegetable impressions. This rock usu-
ally rests on dark and very fissile argillaceous
schist, that contains much sulphuret of iron, and
forms the roof and floor of numerous beds of bi-
tuminous coal adjacent to the streams. These
beds are from a few inches to 5 feet in thickness,
and occur, at various altitudes, from
200 feet
above the river to a great depth below. Large
quantities of salt are made at these springs. Iron
ore is found in abundance in the extensive cal-
careous vallev, between the ridges of the Apala-
chian mountains, particularly in the counties of
Centre and Huntingdon. It is mostly raised from
beds of argillaceous earth, resting on limestone.
The iron manufactured in the counties before
mentioned is distinguished for its tenacity and
malleability. Bituminous coal from the Allegha-
ny mountain is often used for making pig iton.

The Bedford Springs near the towin of that
name among the mountains in the S. of the state,
were discovered in 1804. They arise from a
limestone rock, at the foot of a mountain. The
water is cold, odourless, soft and agreeable to the
taste; it is charged with iron, magnesia and lime,
and is efficacious in removing cutaneous and
chronic complaints. There are several salt
springs in the state. Wild animals are abundant
among the mountains and in all the unsettled
parts. The most remarkable of these is the
cougar, or catamount, sometimes called panther


This page was written in HTML using a program
written in Python 3.2