Hayward’s New England Gazetteer (1839) page 381
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nut is esteemed the handsomest,
though it is not the most -public
street. It has ro.ws of elms on ei-
ther side. Winter and Broad streets
are the widest. The first pavement
was made in Essex street, between
Court and North streets; in- 1773,
and is still in use. The. south church
has great architectural beauty, and
the'north'church ,is built of stone,
with a beautiful front of the gothic
order. There is a Custom House
at-the head of Derby wharf.- .Sa-
lem has always been a commercial
place. It has a-convenient harbor
and good anchorage. In point of
wealth and commerce, it has al-
ways ranked as the second town in
New England.

'Its history is identified with that
of Massachusetts, and there is much
in it to. interest and instruct. Its
rank, the character and number of
its population, its facilities for com-
merce, and the advantage of being
the chosen residence of many of
the first and most distinguished set-
tlers, made*it early and seriously
thought of as the Capital, instead
of Boston. It was first settled in
1626, by Roger Conant, Peter Pal-
fray and others, who had failed in
an attempt to plant themselves at
Cape Ann. In 1628, a cession of
Massachusetts- was. made to Sir
Henry Roswell and others, with a
view to establish a colony there.
Of this company, Matthew Cradock
was President, and in 1628, John
Endic’ott was sent over to reside at
Salem as the company’s agent. In
the same year, the first church was
formed. It has ever been remark-
able for its succession of eminent,
independent and useful Divines;
among whom, are the Higginsons,
Skelton, Roger Williams, Hugh Pe-
ters, Noyes, Fiske, Dr. Prince, &c.
In 1684, the first general court met
at Newton. Roger Conant was
one of the first deputies from Salem.

In 1643, Massachusetts was divi-
ded into 4 counties; Essex, Mid-
dlesex, Suffolk and Norfolk. In
1644, there was a strong party to
make Salem the seat of government,
but in this attempt, the deputies
were defeated.

In 1675, Capt. Thomas Lathrop
and his company were killed by the
Indians, at Bloody Brook. He, with
Rog'er" .Conant, had removed from
Salem to Beverly, in 1668. His
company were calied the “ Flower
of Essex,” and many of them were
from Salem.

■ In 1681, Major William Haw-
thorne died. He was a leading and
influential character in his time,
haying been speaker, assistant,
judge, commissioner of the united
colonies, &c., and having ever
showed himself able, faithful, and
worthy of confidence.

In 1687, William Brown gave a
farift for the benefit of the schools
of Salern. The Brown family were
ever great friends and liberal pat-
rons of learning. They not only
made donations to theJSalem schools,
but also to Harvard College for the
benefit of poor scholars. .

- .In 1692, the witchcraft delusion
prevailed in Salem, and nineteen
persons were tried and hanged as
witches. Though designated “ the
Salem witchcraft,” it had pervaded
other places, previously to its ap-
pearance here. In England, laws
had been enacted against it, and Sir
Matthew Hale, g.av'e to thcfse laws
hie sanction. In 1648, Margaret
Jones was condemned and hanged
at Charlestown, and in 1655, Ann
Hibbins, at Boston. The. imputa-
tion for a time induced. a belief of
the reality of the imposition; but
time finally detected and exposed
tbe error. The house, in which
the accused were tried, is still stand-
ing .at the western corner of Essex
and North streets, and the place of
their execution is now known as
“ Gallows Hill.” A full and inter-
esting account of this delusion of
the imagination has been written
and published by Revl C. W. Up-


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