Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 184

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parative course of the river to this point is about
800 miles. Lewis River takes its rise in the ele-
vated regions of the Chippewayan system, about
10 degrees of latitude S. of the sources of
Clarke River, and is, perhaps, of the two rivers,
the main constituent of the Columbia. It pur-
sues a northwesterly course, receiving large tribu-
taries from both sides, particularly from the E.,
until, after a course of about 520 miles, it unites
with Clarke River, the great northern tributary
at Wallawalla. The valley of Lewis River ex-
ceeds an area of 100,000 square miles. Com-
bining the two valleys of Lewis and Clarke
Rivers, and measuring from the most northern
source of the latter to the most southern source
of the former, gives an entire breadth, for the
source's of the Columbia, along the sides and
summits of the Chippewayan range, of about
1000 miles from N. to S. After the confluence
of these two large streams, the Columbia, which
now carries a volume of water 3500 feet wide,
and has yet to traverse a distance of about 300
miles, and make a descent of nearly 1300 feet,
before reaching the Pacific, takes its final direc-
tion to the westward, pursuing a rapid course for
80 miles, to its passage through the range of
Cascade Mountains, so called from the series of
falls and rapids over which the waters of the
river are carried, at this point, opposing an insur-
mountable obstruction to boat navigation. Erom
Wallawalla to this pass, the Umatilla, Quisnel's,
John Day's and Chute Rivers are received from
the S., and Cathlatate's River from the N. Erom
these falls there is still water navigation for 40
miles, when it is again interrupted by rapids.
Thence to the ocean, a distance of 120 miles, the
river is navigable, even at the lowest stages, for
vessels requiring 12 feet of water, though ob-
structed more or less by many sand bars. In this
part of its course, it receives the Willamette from
S., and the Cowelitz from the N. The width
of the Columbia is greatly enlarged within
the last 20 miles, and where it enters the ocean,
between Point Adams and Cape Disappointment,
it is about 7 miles across. There are flats and
sand bars which extend nearly across the mouth
between these points, and render the entrance of
ships somewhat dangerous; though it would ap-
pear, from surveys and soundings, that there are
about 20 feet of water over these flats at low tide ;
and that, in the channel, which lies near to Cape
Disappointment, the depth of water is not less
than 24 feet. The tide from the ocean flows back
into the river nearly the whole distance to the
grand rapids; and the reflux at Cape Disap-
pointment, where the rise is about 9 feet, is gen-
erally, in the spring, 5 or 6 knots an hour. On
the 7th of May, 1792, Captain Robert Gray, in
the ship Columbia, of Boston, discovered and
entered the mouth of this majestic stream, and,
giving it the name of the vessel in which he
sailed, called it the Columbia River. He was the
first person who established the fact of its exist-
ence, and gave the title, from discovery, to the
United States. In 1804-5, Lewis and Clarke made
the first exploration of the river ever made by
civilized men, and passed the winter of 1805-6 at
its mouth. The Missouri Eur Company, in 1808,
established a trading-house on Lewis River, the
first ever formed on the waters of the Columbia;
and, in 1811, Astoria was founded, at the mouth
of the river, by the Pacific Eur Company, under
John Jacob Astor, of New York.

Columbus, Fort, N. Y. See Governor's Island.

Comite River, Mi. and La., rises in Mi., and
running into La., unites with the Amite 12 miles
E. from Baton Rouge.

Compadre River, Ca. It rises in two widely-
spread forks, which unite and flow N. W. into
Eagle River.

Conception Point, or Punta Conception, Ca. Sit-
uated on the Pacific coast W. from the town of
Santa Barbara.

Concord River,'Ms., is formed at Concord by
the junction of Assabet and Sudbury Rivers:
after passing through the towns of Bedford, Bil-
lerica, and Chelmsford, it falls into the Merrimac,
between Lowell and Tewksbury.

Concordia Lake, La., was evidently, in former
times, the bed of the Mississippi, and in seasons
of very high flood, the water from the Mississippi
flows into it, through a small bayou, and passes
into Bayou Tensas.

Conecuh River rises in Pike co., Aa., and flows
through Fa. into Pensacola Bay. Two miles below
the Ea. line, it. unites with the Escambia, a river
of inferior size, the name of which, however, it
afterwards assumes. It is navigable for more than
100 miles, but the country is sterile.

Conedogivinit Creek, Pa., runsE., and discharges
its waters into the Susquehanna, a little above

Conemaugh River, Pa. It rises in the Alle-
ghany Mts., and flows W. N. W. into the Alle-
ghany, 29 miles N. N. E. of Pittsburg. In the
lower part of its course it takes the name of
Kiskeminetas. Fifteen miles N. E. of Greens-
burg it has salt works on both its banks. Its
length is about 150 miles.

Conequenessing Creek, Pa., falls into the Mahon-
ing, 12 miles from its mouth.

Conescheague Creek is formed by two branches,
which rise in Pa., and unite 3 miles N. of Md.
line; it then passes through Md., and empties into
the Potomac, at Williamsport.

Ooneseus 'Lake, Livingston co., N. Y. This
lake is 9 miles long, 1 mile wide, and is said to
exceed 300 feet in depth. It is well stocked with
fish, and its waters are pure and cold.

Conestoga River, Lancaster co., Pa., enters the
Susquehanna 10 miles below Columbia.

Conewago Creek, or River, Pa., rises in Adams
co., and after a course of 40 miles, falls into the
Susquehanna, opposite Bainbridge.

Conewago Creek, Pa. This river enters the
Susquehanna 5 miles below Middletown, after a
W. S. W. course of 15 miles.

Coney Island, King's co., N. Y., forms a part of
the town of Gravesend. It is much resorted toby
visitors for sea air and bathing, as it directly
faces the Atlantic, being divided from the main
land by a narrow channel, over which is a toll
bridge. There is no more convenient and de-
sirable watering-place in the vicinity of New
York than this island. It is 4i miles long, and
averages half a mile in width.

Congaree Creek, Lexington district, S. C. A
branch of the Congaree River, which it enters a
little below Columbia.

Congaree River, S. C., which is formed by the
union of the Broad and Saluda at Columbia
after a course of 30 miles, unites with the Wa-
teree to form Santee River.

Conhocton River rises in Steuben co., N. Y., and
unites with the Tioga to form Chemung River,
near the village of Painted Post. There are a

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