Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 276

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Baldwin, Me., Cumberland co. Between Se-
bago Pond and Saco River.

Baldwinsville, Ms., a village of Templeton,
Worcester co. On the Vt. and Mass. Railroad.
64 miles W. by N. from Boston.

Baldivinsville, N. Y., Onondaga co. On the
N. side of Seneca River, and possessing a good
water power, which is improved for iron works,
machine shops, flouring mills, the manufacture
of woollens, &c. There is here a flourishing
academy. Boats from the Oswego Canal are
brought through the Seneca River to this village.
145 miles W. by N. from Albany.

Ballard County, Ivy., c. h. at Columbus. In
the N. W. corner, in the angle at the junction of
the Ohio and Mississippi. Drained by May-
field's Creek and its branches.

Ballston Spa, N. Y., c. h. Saratoga co. See Fash-
ionable Resorts.

Ballston, N. Y., Saratoga co. Surface slightly
uneven; soil mostly gravelly loam. 4 miles S.
of Ballston Spa, and 26 N. from Albany.

Baltimore County, Md., c. h. at Baltimore city.
N. part, stretching from Chesapeake Bay to the
Pennsylvania line. Watered by Gunpowder
and Patapsco Rivers. Surface hilly.

Baltimore, Md. City, port of entry, and
seat of justice of Baltimore co. Situated on
the Patapsco River) about
14 miles from its
entrance into Chesapeake Bay, and about 200
miles from the ocean by ship channel. It lies
miles N. E. from Washington, and 97 S. W.
from Philadelphia. The population in
1790 was
13,503; in 1800, 26,514; in 1810, 35.583; in
1820, 62,738; in 1830, 80,625; in 1840, 102,313;
in 1850, 169,012. The city is favorably located
on the
N. side of a bay which is formed by the
Patapsco River; having an area, over which it
is compactly built, of abont two miles on the
E. and W., and a mile and a half N. and S.
As laid out, it includes a plot of
4 miles
square. The ground is slightly uneven, having
many gentle elevations; which give the city a
fine drainage, and affords many commanding sites
for public edifices and private dwellings, espe-
cially towards the
N. and E. The highest of
these elevations, is that on which the Wash-
ington Monument is erected, the base of which
150 feet above the harbor. The streets are
laid out with much regularity, generally straight,
and crossing each other at right angles, having a
width of from
50 to 100 feet. The principal
promenade is Baltimore Street, 86 feet wide
and 2 miles long, running
E. and W. through
the centre of the city. A small river, called
Jones's Falls, empties into the harbor, passing
through the city, and dividing it into two nearly
equal parts on. the
E. and W. Over this stream
are three elegant and substantial stone bridges,
and four of wood, by which the different parts of
the city are conveniently united. The houses
are generally built of brick, with a basement of
granite or marble, the materials for which are
obtained from the vicinity; and they evince a
state of general prosperity and substantial wealth,
without ostentation or display. Among the pub-
lic buildings, the city hall, on Holliday Street,
is a plain edifice, three stories high, vgith a portico
supported by four massive columns ; a substan-
tial and convenient structure, without much pre-
tension to architectural beauty, occupied by the
city council and several public offices. The
court house, on the corner of Washington and

Monument Streets, is a handsome building, con-
structed of brick and marble, 145 feet long, 65
wide, and 2 stories high. The building is ele-
vated 10 or 12 feet above the level of the adja-
cent streets, and is approached by steps in the
front and rear. Above the steps is a colonnade,
with Tuscan pillars supporting a plain entablature
above. The building is crowned with a cupola
of imposing appearance. Its interior arrange-
ments are such as to render it one of the finest
court houses in the country. The state peni-
tentiary, on the corner of Forrest and Madison
Streets, consists of a centre building, and two
wings, a little separated from it, on the E. and
W.; of which the first is occupied by the keeper's
family, officers, and guards ; the E. wing, having
320 dormitories, by the male prisoners ; and the
W. wing by the females. Besides these build-
ings, there are ranges of workshops extending
250 feet in length and 25 in breadth, in which
the prisoners work by day. By night they are
confined in their separate cells. Near to the
state penitentiary is the county prison, two
stories-high, with a basement and an attic, sur-
mounted by a neat cupola, and adorned by towers
at both the ends. Among the church edifices,
the two most distinguished for architectural ele-
gance are the Roman Catholic Cathedral, corner
of Cathedral and Mulberry Streets, and the
Unitarian Church, corner of Charles and Frank-
lin Streets. The cathedral is a cruciform build-
ing, 190 feet in length, and at the transept 177
feet in breadth. Its height, from the foundation
to the top of the cross upon the dome, is 127
feet. The building is lighted from the dome by
windows not visible below. At the W. end of
the building two tall towers arise, which are
crowned with Saracenic cupolas, resembling the
minarets of a Mahometan mosque. It was
originally designed to place an elegant Ionic
portico between these towers; but this part of
the design remains unexecuted by reason of the
great expense of the edifice. This church has
one of the largest organs in the United^States,
having 6000 pipes and 36 stops. It contains
two splendid paintings, the one, the descent from
the cross, presented by Louis XVI., and the
other, St. Louis burying his officers and soldiers
slain before Tunis, presented by Charles X. of
France. The Unitarian Church, which is also
much admired for the beauty of its architecture,
is 108 feet in length and 78 feet in width. It
has a colonnade in front consisting of four Tus-
can columns and two pilasters. From this por-
tico the building is entered through five bronze
doors, in imitation of those of the Vatican at
Rome, three leading into the body of the house
and two into the galleries. The interior is
square, supporting a dome 55 feet in diameter.
The summit of the cupola is 80 feet high. The
organ in this church contains 1400 pipes and 22
stops. St. Paul's Church, Episcopal, with its
lofty tower and steeple, the First Presbyterian
Church, with two towers, and the First Baptist
Church, with its Ionic portico and dome, are
prominent buildings of the city. Among the
commercial institutions, the Exchange, between
Water and Gay Streets, is a splendid building,
225 feet long, and 141 feet deep, and three stories
high above the basement. On the E. and W.
fronts, the building is adorned with colonnades
of six Ionic columns each, the shafts of which are
single blocks of Italian marble finely wrought.

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