Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 278

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of 30 miles out of Baltimore, affording numer-
ous and valuable situations for mills and facto-
ries. There are, within 20 miles of the city, 60
or more flouring mills ; also numerous manufac-
tories of cotton and woollen fabrics, of powder,
paper, iron, copper, glass, steam engines and other
machinery, chemicals, tobacco. &c. The literary
and scientific institutions of Baltimore are vari-
ous and respectable. The Maryland Institute,
established for the promotion of the mechanic
arts, has a fine chemical laboratory, and philo-
sophical apparatus. The Maryland Academy
of Sciences and Literature has its library
and collections in the Atheneum buildings.
There is also the City Library, the Apprentices'
Library, and the Exchange Reading Rooms. The
Maryland University, and St. Mary's College,
which latter institution is under the direction of
the Roman Catholics, are located in this city.
For the particulars of these institutions, the read-
er is referred to the article on Colleges in this
work. The charitable and benevolent institu-
tions of the city are also numerous, among which,
besides the Hospital, already noticed, there are
the Almshouse, several orphan asylums, a City
Dispensary, and various other associations for
the.relief of poverty and distress. There are in
the city something over 40 churches of different
denominations. The Roman Catholics, by whom
Baltimore was originally settled, are the most
numerous. They have six church edifices, in-
cluding their great cathedral. The Methodists
have 9 ; the Episcopalians 5 ; the Presbyterians
5; the Baptists 4; the Unitarians 1 ; besides
those of the Lutherans, German Reformed, and

Baltimore wras first laid out as a town in 1729.
It contained only 50 houses in 1765. In 1797 it
was chartered as a city. Owing to its eminent
natural advantages, it has had a rapid growth in
population and in wealth. The municipal gov-
ernment is vested in a mayor and city council.
The mayor is elected for two years, by twelve
electors, one from each ward, chosen by the

Baltimore, O., Fairfield co. On the Ohio Ca-
nal, which intersects the village. There is a
considerable water power here applied to the
flouring business, the manufacture of woollen
cloths, &c. 32 miles S. W. from Columbus.

Bangor, Me., city and seat of justice of Penob-
scot co., is at the head of navigation on the W.
side of Penobscot River, where it is 'entered by
the Kenduskeag, 30 miles N. by E. from Bel-
fast Bay, and about 60 miles from the open sea.
It is 66 miles E.N. E. from Augusta.— The first
settlement in this place, by the whites, was made
in the winter of 1769-70. In 1772, the planta-
Kenduskeag. as it was then called, consisted
of twelve families. In 1790, the population of
Bangor was 169; in 1800, 277 ; in 1810, 850; in
1820,1221 ; in 1830, 2868 ; in 1840, 8627 ; and in
1850,14,432. — The compact part of the popula-
tion is on both sides of Kenduskeag stream, which
is about 190 yds. in width at its mouth, over which
are three bridges, and on which, at the foot of
the falls, about a mile from the city, are numerous
mills. The bridge across the Penobscot, 100
rods above the mouth of th.e Kenduskeag, to the
pleasant town of Brewer, is about 440 yards in
length. It cost $50,000. The basin at and be-
low the mouth of the Kenduskeag, where the
vessels lie to receive their cargoes, is 90 rods in
width, and affords good anchorage. The tide here
generally rises about 17 feet. Ship building is
extensively pursued at this place: but commerce
in lumber, of all the various kinds in use, is the
principal occupation of the inhabitants. An
immense amount of that article is annually raft-
ed down the rivers, and transported to almost all
parts of the wprld. Bangor is the greatest depot
for lumber on the continent of America. — On
the Penobscot River, and its tributary streams,
above Bangor, are between 300 and 400 saw
mills, capable of cutting an immense amount of
lumber annually; all of which, except what is
used in building, must be shipped at the harbor
of- Bangor. The value of the boards, timber,
clapboards, shingles, oars, scantling, wood, &c.,
shipped at this port, varies from one to two mil-
lions of dollars annually. A large number of
vessels are annually employed, during the season
of navigation, in freighting lumber, timber, &c.,
to various places, besides others engaged in for-
eign commerce and in the fisheries. — Bangor
was incorporated as a town in 1791, and in 1834
it became a city. — The site of this city is pleas-
ant, commanding fine views of the rivers and
the adjoining country. The buildings, both
public and private, are constructed with neatness
and taste, and some in a style of superior ele-
gance. There are several handsome church edi-
fices and other public buildings. .The public
houses are excellent, among which is the Bangor
House. The Custom House is a new and beauti-
ful building of granite. The buildings of the The-
ological Seminary are beautifully situated in the
most elevated part of the city. Conveyances for
travellers from the city are frequent and comfort-
able both by land and water. A railroad is in
operation to Oldtown, 12 miles, and steamboats
ply to and from Portland and Boston during the
season of navigation, which generally continues
eight or nine months in the year. The great
Eastern Railroad from Boston has reached Water-
ville, and will soon be extended to Bangor; and
at no very distant period, doubtless, to the British
province of New Brunswick. Excursions-.to this
queen city of the east are becoming quite fash-
ionable in the summer months. — Bangor is on
one of the noblest rivers in the Northern States
— the product of an almost countless number
of tributary streams. Bangor is seated at the
natural outlet of these mighty waters, as the
mart of one of the most extensive and one of
the richest alluvial basins east of the Ohio valley.
It is true that this section of country is in a high
degree of latitude, and that the icy chains of
winter are felt with greater force and for a longer
period than in more southern climes. But this
seeming disadvantage is more than compensated
by the unrivalled purity of the air and water —
two of the indispensable requisites of health and
longevity. There is probably no portion of
country in the world where the great staples of
wheat, beef, and wool can be produced with
greater facility, where surplus produce can find
a market at less expense, or where the industri-
ous agriculturist can reap a more sure reward.
On a comparison of the present population of
this immense territory, extending from tidewater
to Madawaska, with that of older settlements of
a less fertile soil, of less navigable facilities, and
in nearly as high a degree of latitude, the mind
is favorably impressed with the flattering pros-
pects of the valley of the Penobscot, and of Bau-

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