May 14, the town voted to discontinue all com-
merce with Great Britain. On the 17th of June,
1775, the memorable battle of Bunker Hill was
fought. March 17, 1776, the British were com-
pelled to evacuate Boston, and the American
troops, under General Washington, entered it in
triumph. Independence having been established,
and peace declared in 1783, Boston, with other
cities of the Union, entered upon a rapid career
of commercial enterprise and prosperity.
Boston continued a town, and its affairs were
administered by selectmen, like other towns in
Massachusetts, until February 23, 1822. At this
time the population was about 45,000. The
intention to make Boston a city had occasion-
ally been entertained since 1651 ; but the people
had not hitherto felt the necessity of a more effi-
cient municipality than that of the town. They
had continued in a remarkable degree, notwith-
standing the admixture of foreign elements,
to justify the early encomium of Winthrop:
They were generally of that understanding
and moderation, as that they would be easily
guided in their way by any rule from Scripture
or sound reason."
The city is divided into 12 wards, and is gov-
erned by a mayor, 8 aldermen, and 48 common
councilmen, 4 from each ward. The mayor and
aldermen constitute one board, and the com-
mon councilmen another, who hold their sessions
separately, excepting when they meet in joint
ballot. Two persons besides from each ward are
chosen to act with the mayor and president of
the common council, as a school committee;
and one from each ward to constitute a board of
overseers of the poor. The term of all these
offices is one year.
In bringing this article to a conclusion we
may adopt the words of Hon. Josiah Quincy,
late president of Harvard University, in his ad-
dress delivered at the close of the second cen-
tury from the settlement of the city: —
As our thoughts course along the events of
past times, from the first settlement of Boston,
they trace the strong features of its charac-
ter indelibly impressed upon its acts and in
its history—clear conceptions of duty; bold
vindications of right; readiness to, incur dan-
gers and meet sacrifices in the maintenance of
liberty, civil and religious. Early selected as
the place of chief settlement of New England,
it has through every subsequent period, main-
tained its relative ascendency. In the arts of
peace and in the energies of war, in the virtues
of prosperity and adversity, in wisdom to plan
and vigor to execute, in extensiveness of enter-
prise, success in accumulating wealth and lib-
erality in its distribution, its inhabitants, if not
unrivalled, have not been surpassed by any simi-
lar society of men. Through good report and
evil report, its influence has at all times been
so distinctly seen and acknowledged in events,
and been so decisive on the destinies of the
region of which it was the head, that the inhab-
itants of the adjoining colonies of a foreign na-
tion early gave the name of this place to the
whole country; and at this day among their
descendants the people of the whole United,
States are distinguished by the name of Bos-
tonians." Amidst perils and obstructions, on
the bleak side of the mountain on which it was
first cast, the seedling oak, self-rooted, shot upward
with a determined vigor. Now slighted and
now assailed; amidst alternating sunshine and
storm ; with the axe of a native foe at its root,
and the lightning of a foreign power at times
scathing its top, or withering its branches; it
grew, it flourished, it stands — may it ever
stand — the honor of the field."
Sicut patribus sic Deus nobis.
As Gob was with our fathers, so may
He be with us.
Boston Corner, Ms. This tract, in the S. W.
corner of the state, though politically attached
to the township of Mount Washington, is cut
off from it by a mountain 2000 feet in height.
Boston. N. Y., Erie co. Watered by Cauquaga
Creek and other small streams. The surface is
undulating; the soil good. 18 miles S. E. from
Buffalo, and 289 W. from Albany.
Bastrop County, Ts., c. h. at Bastrop. South
central. On the Colorado.
Botetourt County, Va., c. h. at Fincastle. South
central. Between the Blue Ridge on the E.
and the main branch of the Alleghanies on the
W. The Upper James River flows through it.
Surface elevated and mountainous.
Bound Brook, N. J., Somerset co. 33 miles N.
E. from Trenton. On the Delaware and Raritan
Bourbon County, Kv., c. h. at Paris. N. E.
central. The S. branch of Licking River waters
this county. Soil very productive.
Bovina, N. Y., Delaware co. The surface is
hilly, and is watered by Little Delaware River.
Soil adapted for grazing. 69 miles S. W. from
Bow, N. H., Merrimac co. Soil uneven and
hard, but productive. Turkey River empties into
the Merrimac at Turkey Falls. About a mile
below are Garvin's Falls. Bow Canal is situ-
ated on the Merrimac, 3 miles below Concord;
the fall it overcomes is 25 feet; length a quarter
of a mile. 7 miles S. E. from Concord. On
the Concord and Nashua Railroad.
Bowdoin, Me., Lincoln co. An interior town.
37 miles N. N. E. from Portland.
Bowdoinham, Me., Lincoln co. On the west
side of Kennebec River. Here is considerable
business in the lumber trade and ship building.
12 miles N. from Bath.
Bowie County, Ts., c. h. at De Kalb. In the
N. E. corner between Red River and Caddo
Bowling Green, la., c. h. Clay co. On Eel, a
branch of White River. 60 miles S. by W. from
Bowling Green, Ky., Warren co. On Big Bar-
ren, a branch of Green River, and accessible
by steamboats of 200 tons at all seasons. 144
miles S. W. from Frankfort. The principal ex-
port is tobacco.
Boydton, Va., Mecklenburg co. 109 miles S.
S. W. from Richmond. Seat of Randolph Ma-
con College, the buildings of which are about 1
mile W. of the village. See Colleges.
Boyle County,■ Ky., c. h. at Danville, Central.
Watered by branches of Salt and Dick's Rivers.
Soil very productive.
Boylston, Ms., Worcester co. Hilly and bro-
ken, but the soil is strong and productive. It is
watered by the S. branch of Nashua River. 40
miles W. from Boston, and 7 N. from Worcester.
Boylston, N. Y., Oswego co. Little Sandy and
Trout Creeks water this town, which has a some-