Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 336

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elevation, the fall on these streams, in their de-
scent towards the Ohio, is great; furnishing an
amount of water power, available for mills and
manufacturing purposes, which is equalled' by
that of few other parts of the western country.
The staple commodities are wheat, horses, and
sheep. Population in
1850, about 6000.

Columbus, Ga. City, and seat of justice of
Muscogee co. Situated on the eastern bank
of the Chattahoochee River, at the head of steam-
boat navigation, 375 miles above Appalachicola,
at the mouth of the bay, and 124 miles
W. S.
W. from Milledgeville, the capital of the state.
There is a succession of falls, or rapids, in the
river immediately above Columbus, over which it
descends about 110 feet in the distance of 4 miles.
The city stands on a fine elevation above the
level of the river, and covers about 1200 acres
of ground. It was laid out in 1828, and has had
a rapid growth. The two principal streets, run-
ning N. and S, are 165 feet wide. Six others,
parallel to these, are 132 feet wide. These are
intersected at right angles by 12 others, 99 feet
in width. Many of the buildings of the city,
both public and private, are large and elegant.
The court house is one of the finest in the state.
Jt is of brick, 60 by 90 feet on the ground, and
two stories high, having a fine Grecian Doric
portico on each front. Some of the church edi-
fices are handsome buildings. The Planters and
Mechanics Bank is a beautiful building, modelled
after the Temple of the Winds, at Athens, hav-
ing an elegant portico of six fluted columns.
The Oglethorpe House, a fine hotel, is the largest
building in the city, excepting the cotton ware-
house. This warehouse is one of the most capa-
cious, substantial, and convenient in the state.
It stands on the bank of the river, is built of
brick, fire proof, 133 feet long, and 148 feet wide,
covering an acre and three quarters of ground.
The exportation of cotton from Columbus is a
large business. Steamboats ply between this
place and New Orleans, and the number running
to different points upon the river is fifteen or
twenty. Boats drawing five feet of water can
come up to the city at all seasons. A fine bridge
here crosses the Chattahoochee, which cost
$30,000. Population in 1840, 3114 ; in 1850, 6000.

Columbus, la., c. h. Bartholomew co. On the
E. side of the E. fork of White River, 41 miles
S. S. E. from Indianapolis.

Columbus, Ivy., c. h. Hickman co.

Columbus, Mi., c. h. Lowndes co. On the E.
bank of the Tombigbee, at the head of steamboat
navigation, and is elevated 120 feet above the
A United States land office is here. 141
miles N. E. from Jackson.

Columbus County, N. C., c. h. at Whitesville.
In the southern angle, bordering on South Caro-
lina. Watered by the Little Pedee and Wac-
camaw Rivers. Surface level, and partly

Columbus, N. Y., Chenango co. Watered by
the Unadilla River and some of its branches.
The surface is hilly; soil clay and sandy loam.
14 miles N. E. from Norwich, and 83
W. from

Columbus, O. City, capital of the state, and
seat of justice of Eranklin co. 140 miles S. W.
from Cleveland, and 125 N. E. from Cincinnati.
It is on the same parallel of latitude with Phila-
delphia, 450 miles W., and on the same meridian
with Detroit, 175 miles S. Population in 1840,
in 1850, 16,634. It is situated on the E.
bank of the Scioto, upon ground rising gradually
from the river, and affording an eligible site for
a large city. This spot was selected by the leg-
islature as ,the seat of government in
while it was yet a wilderness, and is designated
in the act as “ the high bank of Scioto River,
opposite Franklinton." It is laid out, as all
towns established in such a manner are usually
laid out, with the most entire regularity; the
streets crossing each other at right angles, and
forming spacious squares, which are often divided
into lesser squares by alleys, or narrower streets,
intersecting each other in the middle. Broad
Street, which extends from the bridge, over which
the national road passes the Scioto, to the east-
ern limits of the city, is 120 feet wide, and High
Street, at right angles with this, which is the
principal seat of business, is 100 feet wide. The
other streets are 88 feet in width. A substantial
quay has been constructed along the margin of
the river,
1300 feet long, which affords every fa-
cility for loading and unloading- goods, produce,
and other articles transported upon the river; or
through the Ohio Canal, which passes 11 miles
S. of this point, and is connected with the Scioto
at Columbus by a canal, or feeder, of that length.


In the centre of the town is a public square of
10 acres, handsomely enclosed, designed origin-
ally for the public buildings. It has Broad Street
on the N. side, and High Street on the W. Upon
the S. W. corner of this square, fronting towards
theW., stands the State House, which is a brick edi-
75 feet long by 50 feet wide, two stories high,
and surmounted with a handsome cupola, from
the balcony of which a beautiful view of the city
and the surrounding country is obtained. The
winding course of the river, the pleasant town
of Eranklinton, on its opposite bank, and many
features of the more distant prospect, give a
varied and pleasing interest to this view. The
representatives' hall is on the lower floor of the
state house, and the senate chamber is immedi-
ately above. The public offices are in a separate
100 feet long by 25 feet wide, standing
directly N. of the State, House. In the same
line, a little farther N., is the Court House, for
the United States District Court. There are
many elegant private dwellings in Columbus;
but the general style of building is characterized
rather by neatness than -display. The churches
of the different denominations are numerous,
and many of them well sustained. The First
Presbyterian Church in Columbus was organized
1818, and their neat brick edifice stands near
the S. E. corner of the public square. The Bap-
tist Church is a large and handsome building at
the corner of Third and Rich Streets, and the
Episcopal Church is a stone edifice on Broad
Street, opposite the public square.

The several state institutions, located at Co-
lumbus, do honor to the state, while they greatly
adom the city. The Ohio Lunatic Asylum oc-
cupies an open area, about 1 mile E. of the State
House, and is a truly noble structure. The
buildings present a front of
376 feet, with wings
on the right and left projecting 11 feet forward,
and running back
218 feet, thus forming a spa-
cious court in the rear. They cover an acre of
ground, and contain
440 rooms. About 30 acres
of land are attached to the establishment, form-
ing a quiet and ample retreat for such patients
as are able to enjoy it. The cost of erecting

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain image

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