Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 468

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greater portion of the city is situated on the ele-
vated ground, and is laid out in a rectangular
form, with broad streets, which are extensively
ornamented with the China tree. The surface
of the ground on which the city stands, and of
the whole adjacent country, is uneven, undulating
like the rolling of the sea in a storm, and pre-
sents a strong contrast to low and level surfaces
of the boundless cypress swamps of Louisiana
seen on the opposite side of the river. Many of
the houses are elegant, though generally the style
of building is plain. They are mostly of -wood,
one story high, with a piazza and balcony. The
houses of the more wealthy are situated widely
apart, each occupying a square, surrounded with
the palmetto, orange trees, and other beautiful
shrubbery. This class of the inhabitants is dis-
tinguished for intelligence, refinement, and hos-

The city contains a court house and jail, a
hospital, an orphan asylum, a masonic hall, a
theatre, two or three banks, and several churches.
There are oil mills here, operated by steam, for
manufacturing oil from the cotton seed. The
cotton crop is extensively cultivated in the vi-
cinity, and Natchez was formerly the principal
mart in this region for this important product.
In 1820, the exports of cotton exceeded 35,000
bales. The business and prosperity of the place,
however, has, from various causes, materially de-
clined from what it once was. The hurricane
of 1836, which destroyed a vast amount of prop-
erty, the failure of the banks, which followed soon
after, the depression in the price of cotton, ac-
companied by the emigration to Texas, which
about this time drew off many of the most enter-
prising inhabitants, have had a disastrous effect
upon the prosperity of Natchez. Its trade, how-
ever, is still considerable, as indicated by the
steamboats which are continually arriving and
departing on the river.

Natchez was first settled by the French in 1716.
From its geographical position, and the wealth
which has been expended upon its decorations, it
has long been considered as one of the most beau-
tiful places in the lower valley of the Mississippi.
Its elevated site affords a fine view of this majes-
tic river, with the numerous craft moving to and
fro upon its wraters, of the village of Concordia
on the opposite bank, and the vast region of
country spreading out beyond. Although the
city is liable occasionally to be visited with the
bilious and intermittent fevers of the climate,
yet its location is comparatively advantageous
in this respect, and in most seasons it proves a
healthful and an agreeable place of residence.

Natchitoches Parish, La., c. h. at Natchitoches.
Bounded N. by Claiborne parish, E. by Cata-
hoola and Rapides, S. by Rapides, and W. by Sa-
bine and Caddo parishes. Drained by Red River
and. its tributaries. The soil is mostly sterile,
but bordering on the streams is some good land,
well adapted to the growth of cotton.

Natchitoches, La., c. h. Natchitoches district.

Natick, Ms., Middlesex co. This township was
originally granted by the General Court to the
Indians, as a place for a permanent residence. It
was incorporated into an English district in 1761,
and into a town in 1781, by the name of
a word in the Indian language signifying “ the
place of hills.'' It is watered by Charles River,
and contains numerous fish ponds. There are 2
villages, upwards of a mile apart.

Natural Bridge, N. Y., Jefferson co. A natural
bridge 15 feet wide, and 6 feet above the water,
crosses Indian River at this place. 153 miles
N. W. from Albany.

Naugatuck, Ct., New Haven co. A flourishing
manufacturing town, on the Naugatuck River. 27
miles by railroad N. by E. from Bridgeport, and
55 N. W. from New Haven. A railroad, connect-
ing with the New York and New Haven Railroad
at Stratford, runs up the Naugatuck valley.

Nauvoo City, Is., Hancock co. 124 miles N. W.
from Springfield. It is situated on the E. bank of
the Mississippi, about 180 miles above the mouth
of the River Illinois. This is the site of the
celebrated Mormon city founded by Joe Smith
and his followers in 1840. It is located on ele-
vated ground, gradually rising from the river to
an unusual height, and presenting a smooth and
regular surface, which, with the plain at its sum-
mit, might amply suffice for the erection of a
large city. Upon this beautiful ground Nauvoo
was laid out on a very magnificent scale, and
many of the houses erected were handsome
structures. The streets are of ample width,
crossing each other at right angles. Three years
after the settlement was begun, the city contained
1000 houses, a large part of which were log cab-
ins, whitewashed. The great Mormon Temple,
which stood in fair view from the river, was 128
feet long, 88 feet wide, and 65 feet high to the
top of the cornice. The top of the cupola was
163 feet from the ground. It was built of com-
pact, polished limestone, quarried near the spot.
It was calculated to contain 3000 people, and
was built at a supposed cost of about half a mil-
lion of dollars. On the 9th of October, 1848,
this Temple was destroyed by fire, and now pre-
sents only a blackened pile of ruins. Four years
previous, the Mormon leader had been arrested,
and put in prison, where, soon afterwards, he came
to his end by the violence of a mob. The Mor-
mons have since left the place. The population,
which at one time was as high as 16,000, is now
much less.

Neashoc, Mo., c. h. Newton co.

Needham, Ms., Norfolk co., was a part of Ded-
ham until 1711. It is surrounded for more than
two thirds of its limits by Charles River. Broad
Meadow, lying partly in this town, and the towns
of Dedham and Newton, is said to be one of the
largest in the state. The town is uncommonly
well watered, and is diversified with hills and
plains. In the course of the river, which sepa-
rates this town from Newton, there are 2 falls,
called the Upper and Lower Falls, which afford
valuable water privileges. At the Upper Falls
is the largest cataract in the whole of Charles
River. The water here falls 20 feet upon a bed
of rocks. There is a manufacturing village at
both of these falls, lying partly in this town
and partly in Newton. The soil is good, and
the encircling river presents much beautiful
scenery. 5 miles N. W. from Dedham, and by
the Worcester Railroad 13 S. W. from Boston.

Nelson County, Ky., c. h. at Bardstown. Bound-
ed N. by Spencer co., E. by Anderson and Wash-
ington, S. by Marion and Laure, and W. by Bul-
litt co. Drained by the Beech and Rolling Forks
of Salt River and their tributaries.

Nelson, N. H., Cheshire co. This town is situ-
ated on the height of land between Connecticut
and Merrimac Rivers. The surface is hilly, but
good for grazing. A branch of Ashuelot and

A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.

Hartford, CT. Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain

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