Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 470

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here, which has prosecuted the business with

The New Jersey Railroad, on its route between
New York and Philadelphia, passes through
Newark, thus bringing it within half an hour's
distance of New York. The Morris and Essex
Railroad connects this place with Morristown, in
the interior of New Jersey. The Morris Canal
also terminates here.

Newark, in its origin, was eminently a New
England town, having been settled, in 1666, by
a company consisting of 30 families, from Guil-
ford, Branford, Milford, and New Haven, Ct.
These families had been preceded by four per-
sons as agents, commissioned to select and lay
out the township, who were Captain Robert
Treat, John Treat, Jasper Crane, and John Cur-
tis. To the good judgment of these men New-
ark is indebted for the beautiful location and
plan of the city, and for its broad streets and
handsome public squares. Nor are these the
most important, nor the most characteristic fea-
tures of its preeminence, derived from its Puritan
ancestry. Captain Robert Treat, above named,
is the same who was afterwards governor of

Newark, N. Y., Tioga co. Drained by East and
West Owego Creeks. Surface hilly; soil fertile
in the valleys. 8 miles N. from Owego, and 161
S. of W. from Albany.

Newark, 0., c. li. Licking co. On the Ohio
and Erie Canal, at the junction of the three main
branches of Licking River, and 39 miles E. N.
E. from Columbus. A place of large and flour-
ishing business. 176 miles from Cleveland, by
the canal.

Newark, Vt., Caledonia co. The Passumpsie
River is formed in this town by a collection of
streams issuing principally from ponds. The
town is not mountainous, but the soil is cold,
and generally unproductive. The settlement
was commenced about the year 1800.    26    miles

N.E. from Danville, and 56 N.E.from Montpelier.

New Ashford, Ms., Berkshire co. This township
is situated principally on the steep and rugged hills
which make from Saddle Mountain on the E.,
and the Taconic range on the W., and which here
approach each other. In the narrow valley be-
tween these hills, along the rise of the western
branch of the Housatonic, and the eastern branch
of Green River, are some small tracts of feasible
land, producing grain, grass, &c.; though the soil
in general is hard and gravelly. By these
streams, with the connected springs and brooks,
the town is well watered. The people of this
town pay considerable attention to rearing sheep.
Much variegated marble is found here. 13 miles
N. from Pittsfield, and by the Western Railroad
from Pittsfield, 164 miles W. from Boston.

New Athens, 0., Harrison co. The seat of
Eranklin .College. 115 miles E. by N. from Co-
lumbus. See

New Baltimore. N. Y., Greene co. On the W.
side of the Hudson. Drained by Dieppe and
Haivnaltraus Creeks. Surface hilly and broken ;
soil rich clay and sandy loam. 18 miles N. from
Cattskill, and 15 S. from Albany.

New Barbadoes, N. J., Bergen co. This town
is mostly level, and is watered by Hackensack
River. Soil red shale and a sandy loam.

New Bedford, Ms. Port of entry, and one of
the shire towns of Bristol co. 55 miles S. from
Boston. Population in 1790, 3313; 1800, 4361 ;

1810, 5651;. 1820, 6947; 1830, 7592; 1840,
12,087 ; 1850, 16,464. It stands on the W. side
of a small estuary, called Accushnut River, which
makes up in a northerly direction into the land
from near the western extremity of Buzzard's
Bay. The township is 10£ miles in length by
about 1 mile in average width. The situation of
New Bedford is very beautiful. It is built upon
ground whiph rises rapidly from the water, and
the view from Fair Haven, on the opposite side
of the River, and from the harbor as the town is
approached from the S., is not excelled by that
of any other place in the country. It is laid out
with much regularity, the streets crossing each
other at right angles. The buildings are gen-
rally of wood, although several of the finest
houses, stores, and other edifices are of brick and
stone. The buildings in the upper part of the
town are much admired for their neatness and
beauty; and many of them have the additional
attractions of splendid ornamental grounds and
gardens. County Street, which runs the whole
extent of the thickly-inhabited part of the town,
along the summit of the rising ground upon
which it is built, is allowed to be without.a rival
in this country for its splendid combination of the
finest features of natural and artistic beauty.

Among the public buildings most worthy of
notice are the town hall, the court house, and
the custom house. The town hall is a mag-
nificent structure of granite, 100 feet long, 61
feet wide, and 3 stories high. The lower story
is occupied as a market, the second as a hall for
public meetings, and the third for offices. This
edifice, which, with the land, cost $60,000, is by
many regarded as the handsomest building in
New England devoted to civil purposes. The
court house is a structure of brick, and near it
are the jail and house of correction. The cus-
tom house, which is of granite, is of a beautiful
design, and makes an imposing appearance.
The Friends' Academy is a handsome struc-
ture, pleasantly situated on County Street, and
environed with beautiful grounds. This institu-
tion is exclusively for young ladies.

Few places have been-more liberal in provid-
ing the means of education in the public schools.
These consist of a high school, and about 30
other schools, requiring the services of about 50
teachers. The Social Library, owned by an in-
corporated association, contains between 4000
and 5000 volumes.

The churches in New Bedford are numerous,
and several of the church edifices are handsome
and substantial structures. Two of the largest
are of stone.

The whale fishery, and the manufacture of the
product of that fishery, are the principal branches
of business in which the inhabitants of this town
are engaged.

As early as the year 1764, we find the settlers
in the village of Bedford sending out their small
vessels after these monsters of the deep, some of
which reached as far south as the Falkland Islands.
Suspended by the war of the revolution, the busi-
ness was vigorously and successfully renewed at
its close; and excepting the interruption caused
by the second war with England, it has been con-
stantly pursued, and continually increasing.

Much of the sperm oil imported is here pre-
pared for use by the different processes by which
spring, summer, fall, and winter oil, as the dif-
ferent kinds are called, are produced, before it



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