Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 472

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Hartford and New Haven Railroad also has a
station within a mile and a half of the village.

New Britain, Pa., Bucks co. Drained by sev-
eral mill streams flowing into Neshaminy Creek.
Surface undulating; soil sandy loam. 96 miles
E. from Harrisburg.

New Brunswick, N. J., Middlesex co. City and
seat of justice. Situated at the head of steam-
boat navigation on the Raritan River, 15 miles
from its entrance into the bay of the same name.
It is 26 miles N. E. from Trenton. The city lies
partly in Somerset co., Albany Street being on
the dividing line between the counties of Middle-
sex and Somerset. The ground on which it is
built rises rapidly from the river. The streets
close upon the river are narrow and crooked, and
the ground low; but those in the upper part of
the city are broad and regular; and many of the
houses are neat and elegant, surrounded by orna-
mental yards and gardens. Upon the highest
part of the city stands the fine edifice of Rutger's
College, founded in 1770, under the name of
Queen's College. The present building is con-
structed of dark red sandstone, and was complet-
ed in 1811. The view from the commanding
eminence on which it stands is extensive and
beautiful; terminated by mountains on the N.,
and by the Raritan Bay on the E.

The Delaware and Raritan Canal commences
at New Brunswick, and extends to the Delaware
River, at Bordentown, a distance of 42 miles,
intended to furnish an uninterrupted and direct
communication between New York and Philadel-
phia by water. It is 75 feet wide, and 7 feet
deep; with 14 locks, 24 feet wide, and 110 feet
long; admitting the passage of sloops of 75 or
100 tons' burden. The cost of building this canal
was about $2,500,000.

The New Jersey Railroad, between New York
and Philadelphia, passes through New Bruns-
wick ; this point being distant from New York
31 miles, and from Philadelphia 56 miles. The
railroad is carried into the city over the Raritan,
and the canal by its side, upon a fine bridge, con-
structed upon stone piers.

This city contains 8 or 10 churches of the va-
rious denominations. The first established was
the Dutch Reformed church, in 1717. The first
edifice of the Presbyterian church, erected some
time before 1726, was burned down by the British
during the revolutionary war.

Through the multiplied means of commerce
and communication which New Brunswick en-
joys, it is favored with great facilities for business.
It is a constant thoroughfare on the great route
between New York and Philadelphia and the
more southern cities, both by railroad and canal;
and vessels of 200 tons come up to its wharves from
the Atlantic coast by the Raritan Bay and River.

The first European inhabitants of New Bruns-
wick were from Long Island. “About 1730,'' the
historian tells us, “ several Dutch families emi-
grated from Albany, bringing with them their
building materials, in imitation of their ances-
tors, who imported their tiles, &c., from Hol-
land.'' They gave the name of Albany Street to
the high road on which several of their company
settled. One of the first houses is said to be still
standing; and others will be noticed by the stran-
ger in Albany and Burnet Streets, which, from
their antique structure, are evidently of an early
date. New Brunswick was incorporated as a
city in 1784. Population in 1850, 10,000.

New Braumjils, Ts., c. h. Comal co.

New Buffalo, Mn., Berrian co. On Lake Mich*
igan, where the Michigan Central Railroad strikes
the lake. Connected also by railroad with Chicago.

Newburgh, Me., Penobscot co. This is a good
township of land, 54 miles N. E. from Augusta,
and 14 S. W. from Bangor. Incorporated 1819.
Watered by a branch of the Sowadabscook.

Newburtf, Ms., Essex co. This ancient and re-
spectable town, the mother of Newburyport and
West Newbury, although reduced in territory,
still retains its former reputation and beauty. It
was first settled in 1633, and was called by the In-
Quassacumcon. This town is well watered by
Parker River and the Merrimae. The soil of this
town is not naturally of great fertility, but is of
that kind which well rewards the industrious cul-
tivator. There are a number of smiling villages
in the town. That portion of the town which lies
on the S. E. side of Newburyport, and which com-
prises a part of High Street, so celebrated for its
beauty, has recently been annexed to New-
buryport. The village of Byfield, partly in Row-
ley, lies at the S. W. part of the town, 7 miles S.
S. W. from Newburyport, while Bellville consti-
tutes the north-western boundary of that town.
There is a curious cave in Newbury, called the
“ Devil's Den,'' which contains specimens of as-
bestos, limestone, marble, serpentine, and amian-
thus. In a pond in the town is a floating island,
of about half an acre in extent. Its annual rise
and fall is from 4 to 8 feet. Dummer Academy
is situated in the parish of Byfield. By the
Eastern Railroad, which passes through the town,
Newbury lies 3 miles S. from Newburyport, and
31 miles N. by E. from Boston.

Newbury, N. H., Merrimae co. The S. part of
Sunapee Lake lies in the N. W. part of this town,
Todd Pond, 500 rods in length, and 60 in width,
affords a small branch to Warner River. Erom
Chalk Pond issues asmall stream communicating
with Sunapee Lake. The land is mountainous;
the soil hard and rocky. Newbury was originally
called Dantzic; in 1778 it took the name of Eish-
ersfield ; in 1837, its present name. Eirst settler,
Zephaniah Clark, in 1762. Erom Concord 30
miles W. by N.

Newburg, N. Y., half shire town of Orange co.,
lies on the W. side of Hudson River, 85 miles
S. from Albany, and 60 N. from the city of New
York. It is 20 miles N. E. from Goshen, the other
half shire town, which is near the centre of the
county. The surface of the township is hilly and
somewhat broken, containing, however, much ar-
able land, with a soil well adapted to grass, and
much of it well cultivated and productive. It is
drained by two or three small streams flowing
into the Hudson River.

The village of Newburg has a commanding and
beautiful location on the acclivity of a hill rising
from the shore of the Hudson to an elevation of
about 300 feet. Thus situated, it makes a fine
appearance from the river, and itself enjoys, from
its upper terraces, an extensive and delightful
prospect, embracing West Point and the most
prominent summits of the Highlands on the S.,
the noble river in front, with the village of Eish-
kill on the opposite side, and the fertile and pic-
turesque valleys beyond, and the Newburg Bay,
and a broad champaign country towards the N.
On the river margin, about 600 feet in extent, are
constructed convenient quays and docks for the
accommodation of a large business which centres

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