Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 494

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on Twenty-Third Street, corner of Lexington
Avenue. It is a spacious and elegant structure,
in which utility and ornament are admirably
united. In its external architecture it is in the
style of the Gothic town halls of the Netherlands.
Its dimensions on the ground are 125 feet by 80.
It consists, exclusive of the basement, of three
lofty stories, which are intersected by two wide
passages running at right angles through the
middle of the building ; above which is the great
hall, extending over' the entire building, and
lighted by windows in the roof. This fine build-
ing will accommodate 1000 scholars, with all the
necessary appliances : and has cost, exclusive of
the ground and furniture, about $50,000.

The total value of real and personal property
in the city of New York, as assessed in 1851, was
$320,108,358. This was an increase from the
value, as assessed in 1850, of $34,022,941. The
amount of taxes authorized to be raised in 1850
Was $2,578,325.

The number of buildings erected in the city in
1850 was 1912. The aggregate of new buildings
erected for 10 years, from 1840 to 1850, was

The whole number of dwellings in New York,
in 1850, was 37,677, and the number of families
93,608. The largest number of persons are in
the various descriptions of manufacturing and
mechanical employments. The number of pro-
ductive establishments of this kind, in 1850, was
3387, employing 83,620 persons, of whom 29,917
were females. The capital invested in these op-
erations was $34,232,822 ; and the annual value
of manufactured articles, $105,218,308. — For the
statistics of commerce, banks, &c., see

New York enjoys peculiar advantages for
being a great commercial city. The harbor, for
capacity, security, and beauty of scenery, is one
of' the finest in the world. It consists of an
outer and an inner harbor; the outer extending
from Sandy Hook and the bar, about 18 miles S.
from the city, to the Narrows, formed by the ap-
proaching extremities of Long Island and Staten
Island, and constituting the Raritan Bay. On
the bar there are 27 feet of water at high tide,
and 21 at low' tide, and within the bay there is
good anchorage for vessels. The inner harbor,
or that which is more properly known as the bay
or harbor of New York, extends from the Nar-
rows, 8 miles, to the city, and several miles on each
side of it, up both the North and the East Rivers,
particularly the latter. It has a width of from
lib to 5j miles, and is about 25 miles in circum-
ference. It has a depth of water sufficient for
the largest ships of war, in every part, and the
largest merchant vessels come directly to the
docks and slips with which the uffiole of the lower
part of the city, excepting the Battery, is bordered,
for a length, in all, of about 7 miles. The inner
harbor is entered, not only from the ocean at
Sandy Hook and through the Narrows, which is
the usual channel for large vessels bound inward
from sea, but, on the N. E., from Long Island
Sound, and, on the S. W., through the Kills and
Staten Island Sound. The passage at the Nar-
rows is about a third of a mile wide. The har-
bor is every where well protected against the
influence of storms; but especially within the
East River, which is the part most closely land-
locked. Here the largest number of vessels
always lie, presenting, in the multitude of their
masts and spars, the appearance of a leafless
forest. The harbor is generally open for the free
ingress and egress of vessels at all seasons of the
year. In very severe winters, it is occasionally
obstructed for a few days w'ith ice ; but the tide
sets through from the East River with such force
that it is only at rare intervals that the ice,
though running from above, stops and closes
over. There are several beautiful islands in the
inner harbor, which are attached to the city.
Governor's Island is 3200 feet distant from the
Battery, and contains 70 acres. On this island
are three fortifications — Fort Columbus on the

S., star-shaped; Castle Williams on the N. W.
point, which is a round tower, 60 feet high,
with 3 tiers of guns; and likewise a battery
on the S. W. side, commanding the entrance of
Buttermilk Channel. Here are barracks, and
houses for the officers, for a considerable garri-
son. On Bedlow's and Ellis's Islands also are
strong fortifications. At the Narrows, Forts
Hamilton and Lafayette, on the E. side, and
Forts Tompkins and Richmond, on Staten
Island, well defend the entrance of that impor-
tant channel. The entrance from the Sound, on
the East River, is defended by Fort Schuyler, on
Throg's Neck. Blackwell's, Great Barn, and
Randall's Islands are in the East River.

The immediate communication betw'een New
York and the surrounding country is maintained
by no less than 15 steam ferry boats, v'hich are
constantly running from different points of the
city to Brooklyn, Williamsburg, Staten Island,
Jersey City, Hoboken, and other points. These,
with the continual arrival and departure of ves-
sels of every class, of steamboats on the numer-
ous routes of travel, and of sailing boats with
parties of pleasure, render the harbor a scene of
bustle and animation scarcely less exciting than
the city itself; while the variegated scenery upon
its shores, the neatly-built cottages, the elegant
country seats of opulent citizens, surrounded
with luxuriant groves and pleasure grounds, and
the fine view of the islands, furnishing each the
site of noble public institutions, or of strong
works for military defence, render all the ap-
proaches to the city upon its waters beyond de-
scription beautiful. The distances to the most
important suburbs of New York by the different
ferries is as follows: South ferry to Brooklyn,
1063 yards; Fulton ferry, 731 yards; Catharine
ferry, 735 yards; Walnut Street ferry, 635 yards ;
Peck Slip ferry, 2800 yards; Williamsburg ferry,
950 yards; Hoboken ferry, 1955 yards; Jersey
City ferry, 2746 yards ; Staten Island ferry, 6418
yards. The suburbs thus connected with the
city of New York are all, in an impoi'tant sense,
an integral part of this great commercial empo-
rium, being created by its prosperity, and afford-
ing residence to its overflowing population. The
suburbs of New York, consisting of Brooklyn,
Williamsburg, Jersey City, and Hoboken, con-
tain, in l'ound numbers, 150,000 inhabitants,
which, added to the population of the city proper
make a total of at least 650,000.

In this connection, it may be proper to refer
to the extensive public accommodations in the
city proper for conveying persons from place to
place by means of omnibuses, or cheap coaches
for the million. The greatest number of these
are drawn by two horses ; but many of them, of
large capacity, have four. They have seats for
from 12 to 24 persons inside, and for others on

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