Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 521

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er 30 inches in diameter, and then is distributed
through the streets by about 113 miles of iron pipe,
from 6 to 10 inches in diameter. The average
daily consumption of water in the city and dis-
tricts, in 1851, was 5,690,744 gallons. Three
thousand families are supplied from the public
pumps, which take their water from cisterns
filled from the aqueduct. These works have
been constructed and maintained, up to 1852, at
a cost of $1,707,550.. The expenses of the year
1851 were $92,380. The whole cost for water-
works to the city of Philadelphia, including the
previous works, and the experiments which have
been abandoned, is $3,174,267. The amount re-
ceived for water rents, in 1851, was $150,107. The
total receipts since 1801 have been $2,953,316.

Eairmount and its vicinity is a favorite place
of resort for the citizens, and for persons visiting
Philadelphia. A fine gravel walk surrounds the
reservoirs, from which a beautiful view of the
city and of the scenery in other directions is ob-
tained. A light and graceful wire suspension
bridge is carried across the Schuylkill at this
place, which is itself an object of curiosity, while
it affords, in crossing, a pleasing view of the
dam, the river, and its banks.

Analysis of the Schuylkill water by Professor
Benjamin Silliman, Jr.: —

Chloride of sodium,.....1470

Chloride of magnesium,.....0094

Sulphate of magnesia,    .    .    .    .0570

Carbonate of lime, ....    1.8720

Carbonate of magnesia,    .    .    .    .3510

Silica,    ......    .0800

Carbonate    of soda, from decomposed

crenates    and nitrates, and loss on

analysis,...... 1.6436

Total solid    matter, ....    4.2600

Carbonic acid in one gallon in cubic

“ No living animalcules were visible. Inodorous,
and nearly or quite insipid, perfectly sweet, and
like distilled -water to the taste.'' Of lead sub-
jected five weeks to the action of this water the
, professor notes — “ Quite bright, and not much
acted upon.''

The situation of Philadelphia between the
Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, makes it a kind
of double port; that on the Delaware being its
port of foreign commerce, and that on the
Schuylkill, its port for the domestic or internal
trade. The principal harbor is upon the Dela-
ware, where large vessels come up from the
ocean, and where the foreign commerce centres.
Its imports, in 1851, amounted to $14,000,000.
The great business of the city was originally
done upon the Delaware. But since the opening
of the coal trade, which has become extensive
within the last 30 years, the business upon the
Schuylkill has grown into great importance.
That river affords a convenient harbor for small
vessels, and many wharves are built for their
accommodation below the bridge, which is at the
termination of Market Street. This bridge, which
was built in 1805, to connect the important suburbs
on the W. side of the river with the city, was
originally a toll bridge, but is now free. There
are two other bridges over the Schuylkill besides
the suspension bridge before mentioned, one
above and the other below the city, built for the
railroads, which also accommodate foot passen-
gers and vehicles. By means of railroads and
canals, an extensive communication has been
established between Philadelphia and the south
and west, affording great facilities of trade with
the interior of the country. The principal of these
are, the railroad to Baltimore, 97 miles, whence
there is a wide communication S. and W.; the
Columbia Railroad to Columbia, on the Susque-
hanna River, 82 miles, thence by the Pennsylva-
nia Central Railroad to Harrisburg, the capital of
the state, 28 miles, and thence by canal and rail-
road to Pittsburg, 399 miles from Philadelphia ;
the Philadelphia, Reading, and Pottsville Rail-
road, extending to Pottsville, in the region of the
coal formation, 94 miles from Philadelphia. The
following links of railroad are intended, when
complete, to connect Philadelphia with the ex-
treme western boundary of Missouri, viz.: from
Philadelphia to Pittsburg, 358 miles ; from Pitts-
burg to the Indiana state line, 300 miles; from the
Indiana line through Indianapolis, to Terre Haute,
150 miles; from Terre Haute to St. Louis, 160
miles; from St. Louis to Independence, 300 miles;
which, when completed, will make a continuous
railroad route of 1268 miles. Between Philadel-
phia and New York there are two routes, one
by railroad throughout, and the other by railroad
and steamboat, whence there are extensive com-
munications E. and N., via Boston and Albany.
The time, by either route, to New York is
about 4 hours. As a comparison with this, it
may be mentioned that, in 1766, a “third line''
of stages from Philadelphia to New York was es-
tablished, called the “Flying Machine,'' which
was to go through in
two days.

The manufactures of Philadelphia constitute
one of its most important interests. For the va-
riety and amount of its products in this depart-
ment, this city ranks first among the cities of the
United States. And many of them are of the
most valuable description, and of exquisite tex-
ture and workmanship.

Philadelphia was first laid out in 1682, under
the direction of its celebrated founder, William
Penn. For some notice of this distinguished
benefactor of his race, and of his connection
with the history of Pennsylvania, the reader is
refered to our general description of the state, p.
125. An appropriate monument now marks the
spot in the district of Kensington, where the
great elm tree once stood, near the bank of the
Delaware, under the shadow of which Penn, soon
after his arrival, acting upon the pacific princi-
ples of his religious creed, so successfully negoti-
ated with the Indian chiefs, disarming their ap-
prehensions and jealousies by his calm, benevo-
lent demeanor, and by the presents of useful im-
plements and goods which he offered, and estab-
lishing the most amicable relations of intercourse
between them and his infant colony. “ Great
promises,'' he says, “ passed between us, of kindness
and good neighborhood; and that the Indians
and English must live in love as long as the sun
gave light.'' “ Under the shelter of the forest,''
says Bancroft, “ now leafless by the frosts of Au-
tumn, Penn proclaimed to the men of the Algon-
quin race, from both banks of the Delaware, from
the borders of the Schuylkill, and it may have
been even from the Susquehanna, the same sim-
ple message of peace and love which George
Fox had professed before Cromwell, and Mary
Fisher had borne to the Grand Turk. The Eng-

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