few others. They remained through the winter,
until the latter part of spring, or early part of
summer, when, being informed by Governor
Winslow that he was within the jurisdiction of
New Plymouth, they crossed the Seekonk, and
commenced the settlement of Providence, on
land which the Narraganset chief sachems
conveyed to Mr. Williams for a settlement.
William Harris, John Smith, Joshua Verin,
Thomas Angell, and Francis Wickes were with
Mr. Williams when he first crossed the river.
Their place of landing is known as the Slate
Rock,'' on the tract of land called What Cheer ''
by the early settlers, because they were saluted by
the Indians with What cheer ? '' when they ap-
proached. In relation to the name given to
the settlement, Mr. Williams says, in a deed
executed by him to his companions, that, having
a sense of God's merciful providence unto me
in my distress, I called the place Providence.''
The first houses in Providence were built on what
is now called North Main Street, near St. John's
Church. A spring in that vicinity bears the name
of Williams's Spring, and his remains are sup-
posed to rest near there, though not a stone tells
where they lie.'' The distinguishing features of
this settlement were, the acknowledgment of the
Indian title preeminent over all others, and the
refusal to legislate in relation to matters of re-
ligious belief, leaving each individual to worship
God according to the dictates of his own con-
A formal town government was erected in 1640,
by the voluntary subscription of all the inhabit-
ants, which continued until 1649, when the town
was incorporated by the General Assembly of
the colony. It retained this form of government
until 1832, when a new charter was obtained from
the General Assembly for the city of Providence.
The government of the city is vested in a mayor,
aboard of 6 aldermen, and common council, which
consists of 4 members from each of the 6 wards
into which the city is divided. These officers are
chosen annually by the electors of the city. The
other officers are chosen by joint vote of the board
of aldermen and common council, acting together
as the city council, the mayor presiding. The
city clerk is registrar of deeds. The municipal
court has probate jurisdiction.
During Philip's war, Providence suffered
greatly. 30 houses were burned by the Indians
at one time. The greater part of the inhabitants
removed to the Island of Rhode Island. The list
of those that staid and went not away,'' now in
the files of the city clerk's office, contains the names
of only 28 men. Many of the inhabitants, allured
by the greater safety from Indian foes which the
insular situation of the towns of Portsmouth and
Newport afforded them, never returned to their
In the revolutionary war, Providence furnished
its full proportion of troops, and partook largely
of the sufferings as well as glory of that struggle.
Though never the seat of actual hostilities, yet,
being approachable by the British fleet, it was
subject to frequent alarms, and at several times
levies, en masse, of all its citizens were required
by the officer of the continental army in com-
mand in this part of the United States.
The population of Providence was, in 1730,3916;
1748,4128; 1774,4321; 1782,4306; 1790,6380;
1820,11,745; 1830,15,941; 1840, 23,170 ; 1845,
31,753; 1850,41,512; 1852, about 46,000.
Provincetown, Ms., Barnstable co. This noted
harbor, and the first port the Mayflower made,
on her passage with the Pilgrim Fathers, in 1620,
is situated on the end of the peninsula of Cape
Cod, and lies in the form of a hook. The town-
ship consists of beaches and hills of sand, 8 shal-
low ponds, and a great number of swamps.
Cape Harbor, in Cape Cod Bay, is formed by
the bending of the land nearly round every point
of the compass, and is completely land locked
and safe. It is of sufficient depth for ships of
any size, and it will contain more than three
thousand vessels at once. The village stands on
the north-western side of the harbor, on the mar-
gin of a beach of loose sand. The houses are
mostly situated on a single street, about 2 miles
in length, passing round near the water's edge.
A chain of sand hills rises immediately back from
the houses, and in some places are partially covered
with tufts of grass or shrubs. These hills, with
the numerous wind or salt mills, by which the
salt water is raised for evaporation, thickly stud-
ding the shore throughout the whole extent of the
village, give this place a most singular and novel
appearance. 110 miles E. S. E. from Boston by
land, and 55 by water, and 45 N. from Barnstable
Proutytown, Ya., c. h. Taylor co.
Pulaski County, As., ' c. h. at Little Rock.
Bounded N. by White co., E. by St. Francis,
Monroe, and Arkansas counties, S. by Jefferson,
and W. by Saline, Perry, and Conway counties.
Watered by Arkansas and White Rivers, and
Pulaski County, Ga., c. h. at Hawkinsville.
Bounded N. by Twiggs co., E. and S. E. by
Laurens and Telfair counties, S. by Irwin, and
W. by Dooly and Houston counties. Watered
by Ockmulgee River and branches, and by
branches of Oconee River.
Pulaski County, la., c. h. at Winamac. Bound-
ed N. by Stark, E. by Fulton, S. by Cass and
White, and W. by Jasper co. Drained by Tip-
pecanoe River and branches.
Pulaski County, Is., c. h. at Caledonia. In the
Southern extremity of the state, between the
Ohio and Mississippi.
Pulaski County, Ky., c. h. at Somerset. Bound-
ed N. by Lincoln co., E. by Rock Castle, Laurel,
and Whitley, S. by Wayne, and W. by Wayne,
Russell, and Casey counties. Drained by Cum-
berland River and branches.
Pulaski, Mn., Jackson co. Watered by the S.
branch of the Kalamazoo River, and contains a
mineral spring and several ponds. 89 miles W.
by S. from Detroit.
Pulaski County, Mo., c. h. at Wavnesville.
Bounded N. by Osage, E. by Crawford, S. by
Texas and Wright, and W. by Camden and
Miller counties. Watered by the head branches
of Gasconade River, and by branches of Osage
River. Surface hilly; soil productive.
Pulaski, Te., c. h. Giles co. On the E. side of
Richland Creek. 74 miles S. by W. from Nash-
Pulaski County, Ya., c. h. at Newbern. Bound-
ed N. E. by Montgomery co., S. E. by Floyd and
Carroll, S. W. by Wythe, and N. W. by Giles co
Watered by New River. Surface partly moun-
tainous ; soil fertile.
Pultney, N. Y., Steuben co. Watered by some
small streams flowing into Crooked Lake, which
bounds it on the E. Surface chiefly level; soil