Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 656

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sachnsetts Bay; on the S. and W. is included a
large portion of Boston outward harbor, contain-
ing many beautiful islands, and the entrances to
Hingham, Weymouth Fore and Back Rivers,
and Quincy Bay. Among many islands here, of
great beauty, is
George's Island, on which is nearly
completed one of the strongest forts on the Amer-
ican coast, for the protection of the city and port
of Boston; also
Long Island, which has recently
become celebrated as a watering-place.

The peninsular promontory on which Hull is
situated, from its position in the midst of the
waters, and from the pleasant situations which
have been erected here by our wealthy citizens
for summer residence, has become to the people
of Boston a second Nahant. The view of the har-
bor from this point, with its many lovely islands,
the light-house opposite, and the animated spec-
tacle of going and returning ships, steamers, and
pleasure boats upon its waters, is beyond descrip-
tion beautiful. Here also, as well as at the beach,
are good houses of entertainment.

This little town, in addition to these natural
attractions, has an interesting and venerable an-
tiquity. It was a mart of commerce, and the
residence of eminent men, 6 years before Boston
bore its present name, and 4 years before Salem
became a town. The ease with which it was ca-

fable of being defended from the incursions of the
ndians led to its early occupation as a place of
residence. On the highest ground are the remains
of an ancient fort, within which was a well, said
to be 100 feet deep.

The first settlers of Dorchester received the
hospitalities of the citizens of this place in June,
1660; and, in grateful remembrance, every suc-
ceeding generation pays frequent visits to this
hallowed spot.

The distance from Boston to Hull, by land, is
22 miles; and by water 9 miles. A splendid
steamboat, which plies between Boston and Hing-
ham, passing near Forts Independence and War-
ren, Thompson's Island, on which is the Boston
Farm School, Spectacle Island, Hospital Island,
the islands above named, and several others,
touches at this place, and affords one of the most
delightful trips any where to be enjoyed.


A stupendous natural arch of limestone rock,
upon which a road passes over a small stream,
called Cedar Creek, in the south part of Rock-
bridge co., a short distance from its entrance into
James River. It is on the ascent of a hill, which
seems to have been cloven through its length by
some great convulsion of nature. This is re-
garded by many as one of the greatest natural
curiosities in the United States. The height
of the bridge above the stream, to the top, is 215
feet; the chasm which it spans is 50 feet wide at
the bottom, and 90 feet at the top; the average
width of the arch is 80 feet, being narrowest in
the middle ; and its thickness, from the under to
the upper surface, is 55 feet. The bridge is cov-
ered with a. stratum of clayey earth, from 4 to 6
feet deep, having a natural parapet of rocks on
either side, rendered firm by trees and shrubbery.
The view from the top, for those who dare ap-
proach and look over the parapet into the abyss
below, is awfully grand. From below it is equally
sublime, and being divested of painful apprehen-
sions, is more interesting. In looking up to this
stupendous arch, at once so massive and so light,
and springing, as it were, up to heaven, the emo-
tions of sublimity which are experienced are
beyond the power of language to express. The
names of many adventurous visitants are seen
upon a portion of its walls, where they have been
ambitious to excel those who have gone before
them, in the height which they could ascend. The
name of Washington still remains, where he
climbed up, and engraved it in the rock with his
own hands, 25 feet from the base. Through the
chasm, which continues narrow, deep, and straight,
for a considerable distance above and' below the
bridge, a limited but very pleasing view is ob-
tained of North Mountain on the one side, and
of the Blue Ridge on the other, each about 5 miles

The Natural Bridge is made to answer a very
useful purpose ; as the turnpike road, which is car-
ried over it, could not otherwise find a passage
across this gulf for several miles. It lies 156
miles W. from Richmond.


These celebrated warm springs are situated in
the lovely valley of New Lebanon, a short dis-
tance W. of the Ms. line. The spot is sur-
rounded by cultivated hills, which present a
panorama of scenery greatly variegated and pe-
culiarly pleasing to the eye. This place has long
been known as a great resort for visitors from all
directions, who come to enjoy the romantic sce-
nery of the region and the beneficial influence of
its tepid waters. The warm spring, which is on
the side of a hill, is 10 feet in diameter, and 4
feet deep, and discharges water enough to sup-
ply a small mill power, to which the stream, at a
little distance from the source, has been applied.
The temperature of these waters is 72° Fahren-
heit at all seasons of the year. They are clear
as crystal, tasteless, inodorous, and soft, which
renders them delightful for the warm bath, for
which they are so much used; being found bene-
ficial in cutaneous affections, rheumatism, internal
obstructions, liver complaint, nervous debility,
and other diseases.

Besides this abundant supply of warm water,
there are numerous rills gushing out of the sides
of the mountains here, which are almost as cold
as ice. These, also, are peculiarly clear and pure.

This place has very judiciously been selected
for the erection of an establishment for the water
cure, which has of late years been introduced into
our country from Germany.

A railroad will soon be completed, passing
through this place, and connecting it with the
Western Railroad, about 7 miles distant. From
this point to Albany, about 33 miles ; to Boston,
about 167 miles; to New York, via Bridgeport
and Long Island Sound, 160 miles.


This place, so “ beautiful for situation,'' and
so interesting for its antiquities, has become
one of the most celebrated summer resorts
in the United States. It is located on the S.
W. side of the rich and fertile island of Rhode
Island, lying within the mouth of Narraganset
Bay, 5 miles from the ocean. Its harbor, one of
the finest in the world, spreads W. before the
town, which is built on a gentle declivity to the
shore, and appears beautifully as it is approached
upon the water. Its insular situation gives to
Newport the advantage of a cool, refreshing sea

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