Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 659

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sound of the rushing waters, and of the rever-
berating winds pent up in their rocky confines,
thrill the soul with emotions never to be forgotten.

The passage of the river from one side to the
other is effected with ease and safety by a ferry,
a few rods below the American Fall. This is
maintained, during the season of the greatest
concourse of visitors, by running a small steam-
boat across, and at other seasons by small boats
with oars. The descent to the ferry on the Amer-
ican side is by a stairway, and also by a rail car,
upon an inclined plane at an angle of
and 325 feet in length, carried down and up by
the action of a wheel* turned by water. On the
British side, a winding carriage road has been
constructed. One of the best views of the falls,
particularly of those on the American side, is that
which is enjoyed from the boat while crossing this
ferry. The depth of the water here is
250 feet,

A pleasing view of the falls is obtained from
the wire suspension bridge, about 2 miles below,
which is itself a wonder of art, now constituting
an additional object of admiration for visitors
at the falls. It spans the narrow gorge of the
Niagara River by a reach, from pier to pier, of
800 feet in length and 230 feet above the water.
The width of the bridge is 40 feet. It is sup-
ported by 16 wore cables, 1100 feet long and
upwards of 12 inches in circumference, having a
strength equal to 6500 tons tension strain.

But the best single and comprehensive view of
the falls is obtained from the banks on the Cana-
dian shore, where a full view of the great Cres-
cent or Horseshoe Fall is presented on the right,
while those on the American side, though more
distant, are seen in their whole breadth pouring
down almost directly in front.

Table Rock, situated near the angle made by
the shore on the Canada side with the precipice
over which the Horseshoe Fall descends, is a
broad projecting crag, 150 feet above the bed of
the river, from which this fearful cataract, with the
agitated waters both above and below, and the
American Fall, in comparative distance, are seen
with the finest advantage. Portions of this rock
have fallen off, at different times within the mem-
ory of man, somewhat curtailing its original
dimensions. This fact, together with the changes
in the shape of the British Fall, from a,compara-
tively gradual curve, according to authentic data,
in 1678, to its present more angular outline, might
seem to favor the belief of some geologists, that
the falls have been, and are still, continually re-
ceding, and leaving behind them the high banks
of a channel which they have been excavating
perhaps ever since the creation. It is certain,
however, that the lapse of 250 years has wit-
nessed no perceptible alteration in the geograph-
ical position of this wonder of nature.

Near Table Rock there is another staircase by
which visitors may descend to the foot of the
Horseshoe Fall, and place themselves in a situ-
ation to feel the full impression of that tremen-
dous power which is making the rocky founda-
tions underneath to tremble. Here, too, those
who are able- to do it may pass, with a guide to
direct them, a distance of' 230 feet behind this
great sheet of water, to a narrow ledge, upon
which there is scarcely space to stand, called Ter-
mination Rock, and there gaze at the arch above,
which appears threatening to fall and crush them,
or look down into the abyss as far as the flashing
waters and the rising mists will permit the eye
to penetrate. There are many features of sub-
limity and of beauty belonging to a full descrip-
tion of the Falls of Niagara, which must pass
unnoticed here.

It is the opinion of those who have been long
resident near the falls, that not even the different
kinds of fish that chance to be carried down ever
escape with life ; wild fowl too, it is said, never
escape destruction if once brought by any means
near to the verge of the main cataract. Three
large British vessels, stationed on Lake Erie
during the war of 1812, were, at the close of the
war, declared unfit for service, and condemned.
Fermission was obtained to send them over the
falls. The first was torn to pieces by the rapids,
and went over in fragments; the second foun-
dered before she reached the falls ; but the third,
which was stronger,, took the leap in gallant
style, and retained her figure till she was hidden
in the mist below.
A reward of 10 dollars, which
had been offered for the largest fragment of wood
from either wreck, was finally paid for the only
splinter which was found, which was not above
foot in length, ragged, and crushed as by a vice.

There are other falls in this country which
have a greater perpendicular descent than those
of Niagara; but there are none, either in this or
any other part of the known world, where such a
mass of water, with such tremendous power, is
precipitated from so great a height. If any thing
can add to the emotions of sublimity awakened
by these amazing demonstrations of the Creator's
might, it is the thought of their untiring en-
durance— of the centuries through which the
“ voice of God as the sound of many waters ''
here has thundered its eternal peal.

“ These groaning rocks the Almighty's finger piled ;

For ages here his painted bow has smiled,

Marking the changes and the chance of time —
Eternal — beautiful — serene — sublime ! ''


This vast cave is situated in the N. W. ex-
tremity of the state, having its entrance about 20
miles S. W. of the Lookout Mountain, and half
a mile from the
S. bank of the Tennessee. The
width of the entrance is 25 feet, and the roof va-
ries from 5 to 60 feet in height. The
, first explored by the students of Mercer
University in 1848, which has its entrance about
4 miles distant, in Tennessee, is supposed to be
connected with this.

The interior passages and apartments of these
caves afford much both to astonish and delight the
visitor. Spacious rooms and lofty domes, tall
columns and glittering pendants from the ceil-
ings, arches and resemblances to architectural
facades, entablatures, and other decorations, con-
stitute a succession of interesting objects, the ex-
tent of which is not definitely known. The rail-
roads from Charleston and Savannah to the
Tennessee River afford a ready communication
with the region in which these caves are situated.


See Franconia Notch, p. S66.    ^


This fine beach is in the town of Saco, which
lies on the Eastern Railroad, about 15 miles
S. W. of Portland. From the mouth of the
River, which here enters the ocean, the beach

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