Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 666

Click on the image for a larger version suitable for printing.


Page 665 ...Page 667

Note: Ctrl and + increases the font size of the text below, Ctrl and - decreases it, and Ctrl and 0 resets it to default size.


accompanied to the citadel by a citizen, the vis-
itor must obtain a ticket of admission from the
office of the adjutant general in the city, upon
which he will he courteously received, and will
have the honor of a guard to accompany him to
all parts of the work which the regulations permit
the stranger to inspect. It is approached by a
zigzag pathway, with 32-pounders staring you in
the face at every turn. When inside, it looks like
a world in itself; though not that in which it
might seem the lion would ever lie down with the
lamb. The walk around the ramparts is the most
delightful that can be imagined, commanding a
prospect in every direction of 50 miles in extent,
replete with all the elements which enter into the
formation of a perfect landscape. The author
of Hochelaga thus glowingly describes this pano-
ramic view from the citadel: “ Take mountain,
and plain, sinuous river and broad tranquil water,
stately ship and tiny boat, gentle hill and shady
valley, bold headland and rich fruitful field,
frowning battlement and cheerful villa, flowery
garden and sombre forest; —group them all into
the choicest picture of ideal beauty your fancy
can create; arch it over with a cloudless sky;
light it up with a radiant sun ; and, lest the scene
should be too dazzling, hang a veil of light haze
over all, to soften the light and perfect the re-
pose ; — you will then have seen Quebec on this
September morning.''

Besides what has been above described, there
is the extensive suburb of St. Roch, lying beyond
the ramparts on the N. W., between the Upper
town and the S. shore of the St. Charles River,
which is the only portion of Quebec built on ground
approaching to a smooth and level surface. Al-
most the whole of this section, comprising near a
third part of the city, was desolated by fire a
number of years ago, and has been but very im-
perfectly rebuilt.

The Plains of Abraham, covered with pastures
and cultivated fields, lie spread out on the W. of
the city, so remarkable in history as the scene of
the sanguinary conflict, as the result of which, in
1759, Quebec was taken from the French, by the
British army under the command of the brave
General Wolfe, who received here his mortal
wound, and died upon the field, at the moment
when victory declared in his favor. The spot is
marked by a small stone monument, on which he
breathed his last in the arms of his friends, ex-
claiming, as he heard the shouts, “ They fly ! they
fly! '' “ Then I die happy.'' The French Gen-
eral Montcalm also was killed in the action.

The spot is also marked upon the bottom of the
cliff, in the Lower town, near which General Mont-
gomery, together with most of his personal staff,
was killed during the American revolution, while
making an attempt, in the night, to force an
entrance into the city. The remains of the gen-
eral were interred by a soldier, and were removed
in 1818 to New York, where they now rest, in
front of St. Paul's Church, on Broadway.

There are several places of resort, which are
well worthy of a visit, in the vicinity of Quebec.
The most celebrated are the Falls of Montmo-
renci, 9 miles N. E.; the Falls of the Chaudiere,
12 miles S. W.; Lake St. Charles, 16 miles N.
W.; the Indian village of Lorette, 8 miles on the
road to the lake; and the delightful excursion,
along the bank of the St. Lawrence, about 8 miles
out, to Cape Rouge, passing over the Plains of
Abraham, and by Wolfe's Cove, where Wolfe
disembarked his army. The roads on all these
routes are mostly good, and the obliging French
drivers are not unreasonable in their charges.

Steamboats run constantly, during the travel-
ling season, between Quebec and Montreal; and
also from Quebec to the River Saguenay, 140
miles down the St. Lawrence, and then up the
Saguenay from 50 to 90 miles, which has become
a fashionable excursion.

The principal hotels in Quebec are the Albion,
in Palace Street, and Payne's Hotel, in St. Ann
Street, in the Upper town ; and in the Lower
town, the Ottawa House and the St. Lawrence


These springs are situated in the S. part of
Monroe co., 42 miles from the White Sulphur,
17 miles from the Salt Sulphur, and 32 miles
from the Sweet Springs. They are among the
most celebrated of the Virginia springs for their
medicinal effects, and are visited by a larger pro-
portion of invalids, perhaps, than any other.
Their decidedly beneficial influence upon
patients, in the earlier stages of that
disease, has given them an extensive reputation.
Neuralgic cases, also, of the most obstinate char-
acter, have yielded to their influence. Scrofula,
diseased liver, chronic diarrhoea, chronic rheuma-
tism, gravel, dropsy, and diseases of the skin are
among the disorders for which these waters have
been found an efficacious remedy.

“ The Red Sulphur water,'' says a physician
who has given an account of them from personal
observation, “ is decidedly sedative in its effects.
It subdues chronic inflammation, tranquillizes
irritation, and reduces the frequency of the pulse
in the most astonishing manner. It has been
considered peculiarly adapted to the cure of pul-
monary diseases; but its good effects equally
extend to all cases of sub-acute inflammation,
whether seated in the stomach, liver, spleen, in-
testines, kidneys, or bladder, and most particu-
larly in the mucous membrane.''

The following is the result of an analysis of
these waters by Professor Rogers, the geologist
of Virginia: —

To 1 gallon, sulphuretted hydrogen, cubic
inches, 4.54 ; carbonic acid, 8.75 ; nitrogen, 4.25 ;
making the gaseous contents 17.54.

Solid contents of 32 cubic inches of water,
1.25; consisting of sulphate of soda, lime, and
magnesia, carbonate of lime, and muriate of soda.
Temperature, 54° Fahrenheit.

A visitor to the Red Sulphur Springs thus
describes the natural situation and the accommo-
dations of the place : —

“ The approach to the village is beautifully
romantic and picturesque. Wending his way
around a high mountain, the weary traveller is
for a moment charmed out of his fatigue by the
sudden view of his resting-place, some hundreds
of feet immediately beneath him. Continuing
the circuitous descent, he at length reaches a
ravine, which conducts him, after a few rugged
steps, to the entrance of a verdant glen, sur-
rounded on all sides by lofty mountains. The
S. end of this enchanting vale, which is the
widest portion of it, is about 200 feet in width.
Its course is nearly N. for about 150 yards, when
it begins gradually to contract, and change its
direction to the N. W. and W., until it terminates
in a narrow point. This beautifully secluded

This page is written in HTML using a program written in Python 3.2, and image-to-HTML-text by ABBYY FineReader 11 Professional Edition.