Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 860

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860    APPENDIX.

Creek, Paravan, Johnson's Springs, and Cold
Creek, to Santa Clara, near the southern border
of Utah and thence, via San Bernardino, near
which is the Mormon settlement, to San Diego,
in California.

The City of the Great Salt Lake stands in the
lower valley of the Jordan, at the western base of
the Wasatch Mountans, in a curve, formed by the
projection westward from the main range, of a
lofty spur which cuts it off from the Great Salt
Lake, which is distant about 20 miles. It is laid
out upon a magnificent scale, being nearly 4
miles in length and 3 in breadth; the streets at
right angles, 8 rods wide, with sidewalks of 20
feet; the blocks 40 rods square, divided into 8
lots, each containing 1 acre and a quarter. By
an ordinance of the city, each house is to be
placed 20 feet back from the front line of the lot,
the intervening space being designed for shrub-
bery and trees. On the W. it is washed by the
Jordan, while to the southward, for 20 miles, ex-
tends a broad level plain, watered by streams
descending from the mountains, and all of which
is capable of irrigation from the Jordan itself.
The plain, on the W. side of the Jordan, ex-
tending.north to the lake, is low and barren.
Through the city flows an unfailing stream of
pure, sweet water, which, by an ingenious mode
of irrigation, is made to traverse each side of
every street, whence it is led into every garden
spot. On the E. and N. the mountain descends
to the plain by steps, which form broad and ele-
vated terraces, commanding an extended view of
the whole valley of the Jordan, which is bounded
on the W. by rugged mountains, stretching far to
the southward, and enclosing the Lake of Utah.
On the northern confines of the city, a warm
spring arises from the base of the mountains, the
water of which has been conducted by pipes into
a commodious public bathing house. At the
western point of the same spur, about 3 miles
distant, another spring flows in a bold stream
from beneath a perpendicular rock, with a tem-
perature of 128° Fahrenheit, too high to admit
the insertion of the hand.

The houses of the city are built principally
adobe, or sun-dried brick, which, when well
covered with a tight projecting roof, makes a
warm, comfortable building, presenting a very
neat appearance. Buildings of a better descrip-
tion are being introduced, though slowly, owing
to the difficulty of procuring the requisite lumber,
which must always be scarce and dear in a coun-
try so destitute of timber.

Upon a square, appropriated to the public build-
ings, an immense shed has been erected on posts,
capable of containing 3000 persons. It is called
the Bowery, and is used as a temporary place of
worship, until the construction of the great temple,
which, in grandeur of design and gorgeousness
of decoration, is:—so the Mormons say — to sur-
pass all the edifices which the world has ever seen.

Energetic measures are in progress for a wool-
len factory, the raw material being furnished from
the sheep raised in the valley. A pottery is com-
pleted, cutlery establishments have been success-
fully commenced, and extensive arrangements
are going on for the manufacture of sugar from
the beet root, which succeeds to perfection in the
valley. Among the English Mormons are many-
possessed of great manufacturing skill.

Several appropriations of land and money have
been made for the establishment of a university.

the grounds of which are laid out and enclosed
on one of the terraces of the mountain, over-
looking the city. A normal school, for the edu-
cation of teachers, is already in operation, and
school houses have been built in most of the dis-
tricts, both in the city and country.

Salt Lake City is a stopping-place for the Cali-
fornia emigrants, a large part of whom pass
through it. Distant from Council Bluff's,
miles; from San Francisco, 1114 miles; from
New York, via Dubuque,
2372 miles.


Situated 74 miles W. from Albany, and 21 E.
from Utica. Formerly called Little Falls. The
Mohawk River descends here about 42 feet in the
distance of three fourths of a mile, by two long
rapids, separated by a stretch of deep water,
affording hydraulic power to a vast extent, only
a small part of which is yet employed for man-
ufacturing purposes. The upper rapid is the
most considerable. The name of Little Falls is
by way of contrast with the Great Falls of Co-
hoes, near the mouth of the river. This vicinity
is much resorted to in consequence of the wild
and romantic scenery of the gap through which
the river passes, crossing the southern extremity
of the range of the Adirondack Mountains. The
river bed is granitic gneiss, very hard, but easily
quarried for building stones, and abounding with
quartz crystals, which, under the name of
“ diamonds,'' are offered for sale to visitors by
the children who collect them. The wooded
hills rise steep on both sides from 350 to 400 feet,
consisting of sandstone,- above which are exten-
sive beds of blue limestone, much used for build-
ing purposes. This defile is 2 miles long,
with a medium breadth of 100 rods, and through
it pass the Erie Canal on the S. side of the river,
and the Utica and Schenectady Railroad and
the Mohawk Turnpike on the N. The canal
ascends, in the space of 'a mile, by 4 locks, a
distance of 40 feet, and is supplied with water
by a feeder carried aross the river by a handsome
aqueduct of 3 arches, one of 70, and two of 50 feet
span. At one point the brow of the hill projects
into the river, by which the canal is carried by
expensive diggings and embankments, a part of
the river bed being taken into the canal.

The village is principally on the N. side of the
river, and though the space is apparently con-
fined, there is still breadth sufficient for a large
town. It contains upwards of
300 dwellings,
and is supplied with water from a spring in the
300 feet above the tops of the houses.


A pleasant town at the head of Casco Bay,
6 miles N. of Portland, which formed a part of
it until 1786. It is watered by the Presumpscut,
and has a number of vessels employed in coast-
ing and fishing. Some vessels are built here.
Both the Atlantic and St. Lawrence and the Ken-
nebec and Portland Railroads pass through it.


This town has a small harbor, and is sit-
uated at the head of Casco Bay, on the Ken-

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