Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 018
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1 Canada Boundary.—By royal, proclamation, issued in Oct.
1763, the line of 45°
n. was fixed as the boundary between the
provinces of Quebec and New York, and this was confirmed in
council, August 12,1768. Thejline was surveyed by Valentine
and Collins, October 20, 1774. By the treaty of 1783 the 45th
parallel was recognized as the
n. boundary of the State from
Lake Champlain to the St. Lawrence. By the treaty of Ghent
the same line was recognized as the boundary, and provisions
were made for a re-survey. In 1818-19, Gov. Van Ness and Peter


The boundaries of the State have been settled from time to time by commissioners appointed
by the several governments whose territories are contiguous. In several instances long and
angry controversies have occurred, which have extended through many years and almost led to
civil war. The boundaries are all now definitely fixed, except that of Conn., respecting which a
controversy is now pending

B. Porter on the part of the U. S., and John Ogilvie on the part
of Great Britain, ran the line with great care; and it was found
that the old line coincided with the parallel only at St. Regis,
and that from that point E. it diverged, until at Lake Cham¬
plain it was 4,200 feet too far
n. The deepest channel of the
St. Lawrence was not always adopted, as a mutual exchange of
islands was made satisfactory to both parties. Before the n.
line was re-surveyed, in 1818, the TJ. S. Government had com¬
menced the erection of a fortress at Rouses Point, on Lake
Champlain; and this was found to he within the British terri¬
tory. By the treaty of August 9, 1842, the old line of Valentine
and Collins was restored, and the strip of territory before taken
off again came under the*jurisdiction of the tf. S. The com¬
missioners to run the line under the treaty of 1842 were Albert
Smith on the part of the United States, and J. B. B. Estcourt
on the part of Great Britain.

Vermont Boundary.—The territory of Vermont was originally
claimed by both New York and New Hampshire, and coniiieting
grants were made by the two governments. Most of the actual
settlers holding title under N. H. resisted the claims of N. Y.,
and many actual collisions occurred. Jan. 15, 1777, the settlers
declared themselves independent, and laid claim to the territory
w. to the Hudson,
n. of Lansingburgh, and along the w. shore
of Lake Champlain. By an act of Congress passed Aug. 20,1781,
they were required to recedo from this claim. A final agree¬
ment was entered into between Vt. and N. Y., Oct. 7, 1790, by
which N. Y. surrendered all her claim to jurisdiction to the
present territory of Vt., and Vt. paid $30,000 to certain persons
who had been deprived of lands granted by N. Y. Theboundary
line was run by Robert Yates, Robert R. Livingston, John Lan¬
sing, jr:, Gulian C. Verplanck, Simeon De Witt, Egbert Benson,
Richard Sill, and Melancthon Smith on the part of N. Y., and
Isaac Tichenor, Stephen R. Bradley, Nathaniel Chipman, Elijah
Paine, Ira Allen, Stephen, Jacob, and Israel Smith on the part
of Vt. The final line was established June 8,1812.

Massachusetts Boundary.—TJpe charter of Massachusetts em¬
braced all the territory between 44° and 48° n. latitude “ through¬
out the Maine lands from sea to sea.” Grants made under this
authority conflicted with those of N. Y., and angry controversies
ensued, which in colonial times often resulted in violence and
bloodshed. On the 18th of May, 1773, an agreement was en¬
tered into between John Watts, Wm. Smith, Robert R. Livings¬
ton, and Wm. Nicoll, commissioners on the part of N. Y., and
Wm. Brattle, Joseph Hawley, and John Hancock, on that of
Mass.; but the Revolution soon followed, and the line was never
run. Commissioners appointed by both States in 1783 failed
to agree; and December 2, 1785, Congress appointed Thomas
Hutchins, John Ewing, and David Rittenhouse commissioners
to run the line and finally end the controversy. The claims of
Mass. to the lands westward were finally settled at Hartford,
Conn., Dec. 16, 1786, by James Duane, Robert R. Livingston,
Robert Yates, John Haring, Melancthon Smith, and Egbert
Benson, commissioners on the part of N. Y., and John Lowell,
James Sullivan, Theophilus Parsons, and Rufus King, on the
part of Mass. By this agreement Mass. surrendered the sove¬
reignty of the whole disputed territory to N. Y., and received in
return the right of soil and pre-emptive right of Indian pur¬
chase w. of a meridian passing through the 82d milestone of the
Penn, line, excepting certain reservations upon Niagara River.
The title to a tract known as “ The Boston Ten Towns,” lying
of this meridian, previously granted by Mass., was also con¬
firmed. Nantucket, Marthas Vineyard, and the adjacent islands,
were purchased from the Earl of Sterling by the Duke of York,
and civil jurisdiction was exercised over them, under the name
of “
Dukes County,” by the governors of N. Y., until it was an¬
nexed to Mass. by the provincial charter of 1692.    “    Pemaquid

and its dependencies,” comprising a considerable part of the
coast of Maine, was also bought from the Earl of Sterling, and
governed by N. Y., as “
Cornwall County,” until 1686, when it
was transferred to Mass. Boston Corner, a small arable tract in
the town of Mount Washington, separated by a rugged mountain
from the convenient jurisdiction of Mass. was surrendered by
that State May 14,1853, accepted by N. Y. July 21,1853, and
the transfer was confirmed by Congress, Jan. 3, 1855. Russell
Dorr was appointed on the part of N. Y., and John Z. Goodrich
by Massachusetts, to ran and mark the line.

Connecticut Boundary.—By the charter of 1662 the territory
of Conn. extended to the “ South Sea;” and by patent granted
in 1664 the territory of the Duke of York was bounded
e. by
Connecticut River. Commissioners sent over in 1664 settled
upon a line 20 mi.
e. of the Hudson as the boundary, fixing the
starting point on Mamaroneck River. The decision proving
grossly erroneous, the controversy was renewed, and in 1683
another commissioner was appointed to settle the matter. It
was finally agreed to allow Conn. to extend her boundaries w.
along the Sound, and N. Y. to receive a compensation in the N.;
and the line was definitely established May, 1731. By this agree¬
ment a tract called the “ Oblong,” containing 61,440 acres, along
the N.'part of the w. border of Conn., was surrendered to N. Y.
The exact line of Conn. has to the present day been a subject of
controversy, and in 1856 commissioners were appointed by each
State to effect a settlement, but without success. N- Y. owns all
the islands in the Sound to within a few rods of the Conn. shore.

New Jersey Boundary.—The original patent of New Jersey
was bounded
n. by a line running directly from a point on the
Delaware, latitude 41° 40^, to a point on the Hudson, latitude
41°, and
e. by Hudson River. The n. line was run and marked in
1774, and the
e. was claimed by N. Y. as extending only to low-
water mark on the adjacent waters. N. J. claimed “ full right
and lawful authority to exercise jurisdiction in and over the said
Hudson River and the said main sea,” including Staten Island,
and, by an act of Nov. 2, 1806, appointed Aaron Ogden, Wm. S.
Pennington, James Parker, Lewis Condict, and Alexander C.
McWhorter commissioners to settle her claims. The New York
Legislature, on the 3d of April, appointed Ezra L’Hommedieu,
Samuel Jones, Egbert Benson, Simeon De Witt, and Joseph C.
Yates to meet the commissioners of N. J.; but their interviews
led to no result. The question of jurisdiction was finally settled
in 1833, by an agreement between Benj. F.iButler, Peter A. Gay,
and Henry Seymour on the part of N. Y., and Theodore Freliog-
huysen, James Parker, and Lucius Q. C. Elmer on the part of
'N. J.; confirmed by N. Y. Feb. 5, by N. J. Feb. 26, and by Con¬
gress June 28,1834. The right of each State to land under water
and to fisheries extends to the center of the channel. The State
of N. Y. has sole jurisdiction over all the waters of the bay and
of the river w. of New York City to low-water mark on the
Jersey shore, except to wharves and vessels attached thereto.
This jurisdiction covers the waters of Kil Van Kull and of
Staten Island Sound to Woodbridge Creek, as for quarantine
purposes. South of this, N. J. has exclusive jurisdiction over
the waters of the Sound and of Raritan Bay westward of a line
from Princes Bay Light to Manhattan Creek, subject to right
of property in lands under water, of wharves, docks, and ves¬
sels aground or fastened to any wharf or dock, and the right of
fishing to the center of the channel.

Civil process in each State may be executed upon the watera
of the river and bay, except on board of vessels aground or at¬
tached to wharves in the other State, or unless the person or
property be under arrest or seizure by virtue of authority of
the other State. By the late survey of N. J. the point of de¬
parture of the boundary from the Delaware ia 41° 20L

Pennsylvania Boundaries.—The original boundary line be¬
tween New York and Pennsylvania extended from the
n. w.
corner of New Jersey along the center of D_h>ware River to
n. latitude, and thence due w. to Lake Eri >. S'muel Hol¬
land on the part of N. Y., and David RittonhoF on the part
of Penn., were appointed commissioners, Nov. 8,1V74, to run
this boundary; but the Revolution sain after cjinnrmced, and
nothing was done. In 1785-86 the line was run w. to the 90th
milestone, and the survey was certified Oct. 12,1736, by James
Clinton and Simeon De Witt, of N. Y., and Andrew Elliott, of
Penn. By authority of the State Legislature, the N. Y. delegates
in Congress, March 1,1781, d to the General Government
all the lands to which they had Jaini w. of a meridian extend¬
ing through the w. extremity of Lake Ontario. Tire trian¬
gular tract so surrendered wr»« sold to Penn, for $151,640, and
secured to that State 30 mi. of lake coast and an e xcellent
harbor. The line was run
hy the U. S. Surveyor General in


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