Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 033
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Tlie State Engineer and Surveyor1 has charge of the engineering department of the
canals and such land surveys as involve the interests of the State. He reports annually the statistics
of these departments and of railroads. He is a Commissioner of the Land Office, a member of the
Canal Board and Board of State Canvassers, and a trustee of Union College and the State Hall.
He must be a practical engineer. He is assisted by a deputy and 3 clerks.


United States Courts.—The second of the U. S. Courts comprises New York, Vermont,
and Connecticut. A court is held twice a year in each State by a Justice of the Supreme Court
and the District Judge of the district in which the court sits.

The State of New York is divided into two Judicial Districts, in each of which is held a District
.2 The officers of this court in each district are a District Judge, Attorney, Marshal, and
Clerk. In the Southern District a term is held in each month, at New York; and in the Northern
District one term is held each year at Albany, Utica, Auburn, and Buffalo, and one term annually
in St. Lawrence, Clinton, or Franklin co., as the Judge may direct
.3 These courts have nearly
concurrent original jurisdiction in all matters in which the United States is a party; and they take
cognizance of offenses against the laws of the U. S. An appeal lies from the District to the Circuit
Court, and thence to the Supreme Court.

State Courts.—The State Courts consist of a Court fcr the
Trial of Impeachments, the Court of Appeals, the Supreme Court
and Court of Oyer and Terminer, the County Court and Court of
Sessions, Justices’Courts, and City Courts.

Tlie Court for tlie Trial of Impeachments consists
of the Senate and the Judges of the Court of Appeals. Its judg-
ments extend only to removal of officials and to disqualification for
holding office
.4 Parties impeached are liable to all the penalties
of the civil and criminal laws. This court is a court of record; its
meetings are held at Albany.

The Court of Appeals,5 instituted in 1847, is composed of 8
j udges, 4 of whom are elected, (one every 2 years,) and 4 of whom are
the Judges of the Supreme Court having the shortest term to serve.
The judge elected having the shortest term to serve is Chief Judge;
6 judges constitute a quorum. This court has power to correct
and reverse all proceedings of the Supreme Court, or of the former
Supreme Court, and Court of Chancery. It holds 4 terms a year
at the Capital; and every 2 years one term must be held in
each Judicial District. Its clerk has an office in the State Hall,
where the records of this and former State and Colonial Courts are
preserved. The State Reporter prepares for the press and pub¬
lishes the decisions of the court, copies of which are sent to each
county, and franked, under the Governor’s hand, to each of the other States and Territories of the

1 This office takes the place of that of “Surveyor General”
which existed under the colony. In the earlier years of the
State Government, numerous and responsible duties were im¬
posed upon, this officer, under acts for the sale and settlement
of lands, the adjustment of disputed titles, boundaries, and In¬
dian claims, laying out roads, and business relating to the salt

with great integrity and success.

The Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney
General, and State Engineer are elected biennially at the same
time,—their election occurring on alternate years from those
of the election of the Governor and Lieut. Governor.

® 'United States District Courts.—There are two Districts within
this State. The Southern District embraces Columbia, Greene,

Ulster, Sullivafn, and the counties South. The Northern Dis¬
trict embraces the remainder of the State.

3 The United States has caused or ordered huildings to be
erected in part for the accommodation of these courts at New
York, Utica, Buffalo, .Ogdensburgh, Canandaigua, and Platts¬
burgh. These edifices are of the most substantial kind, and
generally fireproof.

4 This court has assembled hut once. In 1853 it was con¬
vened for the trial of impeachment of John C. Mather, Canal
Commissioner. He was acquitted.

6 Constitution, Art. VI, Sec. 2. This court takes the place
of the former “
Court for the Correction of Errors,” and in some
respects fills that of the old Supreme Court and Court of Chan¬


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