Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 219
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In 1779, Gen. Sullivan and his army entered the co. from the s. by the way of Chemung
Elver. Below
11 Newtown Point” (now Elmira) he encamped and threw up a breastwork, which
was afterward called Fort Sullivan. At this point he first encountered the Indians and tories in
force, and on the 29th of Aug. a battle ensued. The Indians were commanded by Brant, and
the tories were led by Cols. Butler and Johnson. After an obstinate engagement of two hours, the
enemy gave way at all points and fled, and no more resistance was offered to the advance of the
American army. The first settlements were made from 1787 to 1790, by immigrants from Penn.,
who had accompanied Sullivan in his expedition. They located principally in the valley of the
Chemung, at Elmira, Southport, and Big Flats. Soon after, settlements were made at Catlin and
Veteran, by immigrants from Conn.; at Erin, by Dutch and Scotch from N. J. and Del.; and at
Chemung, by immigrants from Lancaster co., Penn.1 The portion of the co. lying s. of the Che¬
mung River was included in a royal grant made previous to 1775. The remaining parts of the co.
were included in the Watkins and Flint purchase.


BAliSJWIlV2—was formed from Chemung, April 7, 1856. It lies s. e. of the center of the
co., and a narrow strip extends to the
e. border. Its surface is a hilly upland, broken by the deep
valleys of Baldwin and Wynkoop Creeks. The soil upon the hills is a clayey and shaly loam
underlaid by hardpan, and in the valleys a gravelly loam. Hammonds Corners (North
Chemung p. o.) contains a church, tannery, and 18 houses. Henry Sice made the first settlement,
a little n. of the village, in 1813, and Warren and Charles Granger settled at the village in 1814.3
The only church in town (Union) was formed in 1852, by Dr. Murdock, the first preacher.

BIC5- Mi ATS—was formed from Elmira, April 16, 1822. It lies upon the w. border of the
co., s. of the center. Its surface consists of a broken upland in the sr. and s., separated by a wide
intervale or flat, which extends
n. e. from the Chemung through the center and gives name to the
town. Chemung River receives several small tributaries from the sr., the principal of which is
Sing Sing Creek. The soil is a slaty loam upon the hills, and a productive gravelly loam in the
valleys. Tobacco is raised in considerable quantities upon the flats.4 Big" Flats5 (p.v.,) situ¬
ated in the valley near the W. border of the town, is a station upon the N. Y.
& Erie R. R. Pop.
180. The first settlement was made by Christian Miner, from Penn., in 1787.5 The first church
(Bap.) was formed in 1807. Rev. Roswell Goff was the first preacher.6

CATIilMwas formed from Catharines, Schuyler co., April 16, 1823. It is the it. w. corner
town of the co. The surface is a hilly upland, the highest summits being 200 to 400 feet above the
valleys. The principal streams are Post and Sing Sing Creeks, and Hubbards Run. The soil is
chiefly a gravelly loam, and is best adapted to grazing. There is no village or church in town.

by Mr. Smith until 1831. It was successively issued by
Brinton Paine, Cyrus Pratt, Pratt
& Beardsley, Mason &
Bhodes, Geo. W. Mason, and Wm. C. Mason, until 1857,
when it passed intp the hands of S. C. Taber, by whom
it is still published.

The Elmira Republican was commenced in 1820, and in 1828 it
was changed to

The Elmira Whig, and published by James Durham. In 1829
it was changed again to

The Elmira Republican, and issued by C. Morgan. . It was soon
after called

The Elmira Republican and Canal Advertiser. In 1831 it passed
into the hands of John Duffy, and its name was changed
back to

The Elmira Republican. It was successively issued by Birdsall
& Huntley, Ransom & Birdsall, Polly & Carter, Polly
& Cook, Polly & Huntley, S. B.
& G. C. Fairman, G. C.
Fairman, Fairman & Baldwin, Baldwin & Dumas, and
Calhoun, until 1857, when it was discontinued.

The Elmira Daily Republican was issued a short time in 1846.

The Daily Republican was issued from the Republican office
from the fall of 1851 to 1855.

TJie Elmira Advertiser was commenced in 1853 by
Fairman Brothers. In 1856 F. A. De Voe became in¬
terested in the publication, and the paper is still issued
by Fairman & De Voe.

Tlie Elmira Daily Advertiser was commenced
simultaneously with the weekly, and is still issued, by
the same publishers.

The Elmira Daily Democrat was issued a short-time in 1851 by
J. Taylor & S. C. Taber.

The Chemung Patriot was published in 1837 at Horseheads by
J. T. Bradt.

The Philosopher was commenced at Horseheads, April 7, 1855,
by Sam’l C. Taber, and was continued udtil 1857, when
it was merged in
The Elmira Gazette.

Tlie Daily Press was commenced in 1856, by Dumas, Van
Gelder & Paine, its present publishers.

The Temperance Gem (mo.) was published at Elmira about 1850.

1 Louis Philippe, the Duke de Nemours, and the Duke de Berri,
visited Elmira in 1797, having traveled on foot to that place
from Canandaigua, a distance of 70 mi. They went down the
river to Harrisburgh upon an ark.

2 Named from Baldwin Creek, which received its name from
Isaac, Walter, and Thomas Baldwin, brothers, who settled at an
early period at the mouth of the creek. It was formerly called
Butlers Creek. They were attached to Gen. Sullivan’s expedi¬
tion against the Indians in 1778-79, and Walter was wounded
at the battle of Newtown.

3 The first child horn was Simeon Hammond, and the first
death was that of Thos. Wheeler, killed by the fall of a tree. The
first school was taught by Polly Blandin, a little N. of the village.

D. R. Harris kept the first inn, and Miles Covel the first store, n.
of the village.

4 In 1850, Sanford Elmore, from Conn., commenced the culti¬
vation of tobacco in this town, and it has since become a staple
product. In 1858 nearly 1000 acres were devoted to it, and 250
tons of the Conn. seed leaf were produced.

5 Caleb Gardner and Henry Starell, from Penn., settled on
the river below Miner in the same or the next year. Geo. Gard¬
ner settled at the village in 1788, Clark W'inans on the river
in 1789, and John Winters, Jesse and Joel Rowley, and Geo.
Gardner, jr., all from Penn., in 1790. The first birth was that
of Christian Miner, jr., in 1790; the first marriage, that of Wm,
Applegate and Catharine Miner; and the first death, that of T.
Dolson. Cornelius McGinnis taught the first school, near the
village; John Hay kept the first store, and Capt. Geo. Gardner
the first inn at the village. The first gristmiU was erected by
Robt. Miller, E, of the village.

6 The census reports 4 churches; Bap., F. W. Bap., Presb., and
M. E.


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