Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 268
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fine quality of sandy and gravelly loam. Upon the hills in some places it is composed of disinte¬
grated slate, and upon the Hudson River intervale it is a deep, rich alluvium. Agriculture is the
leading pursuit, and few cos. in the State offer greater attractions to the farmer. The richness and
variety of its soil, and its proximity to the New York market, insure a rich return for all agri¬
cultural labor. Farming is of a mixed character, all branches being successfully pursued. Sending
milk to New York and the raising of improved breeds of cattle have become important branches
of business.1

A considerable amount of manufacturing is carried on in the co., the principal establishments
being located at Poughkeepsie and Fishkill, and a large amount of commerce is carried on by
means of the Hudson.

The county seat is located at the city of Poughkeepsie. The colonial courthouse and jail was
burned in 1785, and a new one was built soon after. This was burned in 1808.2 The present
building was erected in 1809,3 and contains the courtroom, jail,4 clerk’s office, and all the usual co.
offices except that of surrogate, which is in a small building adjacent. The co. poorhouse is situ¬
ated on a farm of 107 acres in the town of Poughkeepsie, 1 mi.
e. of the courthouse. The average
number of inmates is 220, supported at a weekly cost of 95 cents each. The farm yields a revenue
of |1631.5 The Hudson River R. R. extends along the
e. bank of the Hudson, through Fishkill,
Poughkeepsie, Hyde Park, Rhinebeck, and Redhook; and the New York & Harlem R. R. extends
along the
e. border of the co., through Pawling, Dover, Amenia, and North East. In summer,
regular lines of steamers ply between Poughkeepsie, New York, and Albany.

One daily and seven weekly papers are now published in the co.6

1 In cultivated area Dutchess co. is excelled only hy Jefferson,
Oneida, Otsego, and St. Lawrence cos.; and in cash value of
farms hy Monroe and Westchester only. Over 2,000,000 gallons
of milk are sent annually to the N. Y. market.

2 A courthouse and jail were first ordered to be built July 21,
1715; but they do not appear to have been completed until 30
years afterward. In 1760, an act authorized the conversion of
a jury room into a jail, and 4 years after money was- raised to com¬
plete the arrangement. The act of April 11, 1785, appropriated
the sum of £1500 to re-construct the buildings, which had been de¬
stroyed by fire, and Cornelius Humfrey, Peter Tappen, and Gil¬
bert Livingston were appointed a building committee. A further
tax of £2000 was ordered in 1786, and of £1300 in 1787. In the
mean time, prisoners were sent to the Ulster co. jail. By act of
March 19,1778, the sheriff’s mileage was to be reckoned from
the house of Myndert Vielle, in Beekman’s Precinct.

3 The act for the re-construction of these buildings was passed
March 24,1809, and $12,000 was raised for that purpose. Jas.
Talmadge, John B. Van Wyek, and John Van Benthuysen were
appointed building commissioners. The next year, $13,000 addi¬
tional was raised, and the building was completed soon after. It
is a stone edifice, 50 by 100 ft. The first deed on record was en¬
tered Dec. 26,1718, conveying property from Henry Van De Bo¬
gart to Capt. Barent Van Kleeck, and others.

* The condition of the jail was represented by the Senate Com¬
mittee of 1856 as extremely unfit for its purpose and unhealthy
to its inmates.

6 The buildings are large, and can accommodate 350 inmates.
The sexes are kept separate, and an asylum is provided for luna¬
tics. A school is taught during the whole year, and religious
worship is regularly conducted.

6 The New Tork Journal, first established in the city of New
York by John Holt in 1734, was removed to Pough¬
keepsie in 1776, in consequence of the British occupa¬
tion. In 1778 it became the first State paper under the
new Government; and on the 11th of April, 1785, its
name was changed to
The, Poughkeepsie Journal, published by Nicholas Power. In
1786 its name was changed to
The Country Journal and Poughkeepsie Advertiser; and in
1789 to

The Country Journal and Dutchess and Ulster Family Register.
In 1808 it was sold to Paraclete Potter, who changed
it to

The Poughkeepsie Journal and Constitutional Republican. In
1812 it was changed to
The Poughkeepsie Journal, and in 1834 Jackson & Schram became
the proprietors. In 1844 it was united with
The Eagle,
and was issued as
The Journal and Poughkeepsie Eagle. In 1850 the name was
changed to

riie Poughkeepsie Slagle, under which title it is still
published by Platt
& Schram.

The New Tork Packet and American Advertiser, published by
SamT Loudon, Was removed from New York when the
British' took possession of the city, .and was first issued
at Fishkill Oct. 1, 1776. It was removed to New York
again after the close of the war.

The Awefican 'Farmer and Dutchess County Advertiser was com-
f V" ra&fced in Aug. 1798, by John Woods, and was con-

'-'-4inued a short time.

The Barometer, commenced in May, 1802, by Isaac Mitchell,
was changed to

The Political Barometer in 1806, and was published hy Thomas
Nelson. Its name was changed to
The Northern Politician, and it was soon after discontinued.

The Farmer was published at Poughkeepsie in 1806-07.

The Republican Herald was started in Nov. 1811, by Derick B.
Stockholm and Thos. Brownjohn. It was continued
until 1823 under the charge of Johnston Yerplank &
Wm. Orr.

The Dutchess Observer was first started May 10,1815, by Chas.
P. Barnum
& Richard Nelson. Nicholas Jaycocks,
Nathan Myers, jr., and Orrin Osborne were successively
interested in the publication until 1826, when the paper
was united with
The Telegragh, and issued as
The Poughkeepsie Telegraph and Observer. It was successively
under the charge of Chas. P. Barnum, Egbert B. Killey,
Aaron Low, and Benson J. Lossing. In 1841 it was
changed to

The Telegraph, and was published by Killey & Lossing. Albert
S. Pease
& E. K. Olmsted were afterward interested in
its publication; and in 1852 it was united with
and was issued as
Tlie Poughkeepsie Telegraph and Dutchess
Democrat, now published by Osborne & Killey.

The Republican Telegraph was first issued May 5,1824, by Wm.

Sands & Isaac Platt. In 1826 it was united with
The Observer.

The Dutchess Intelligencer was first issued April 30, 1828, by
Chas. F. Ames
& Fred. T. Parsons. It was afterward
published by Platt & Parsons and Isaac Platt until
1833, vyhen it was united with
The Republican, and was issued as

The Intelligencer and Republican, published by Platt & Ranney.

In 1834 the name was changed to
The Poughkeepsie Eagle; and in 1844 it was united with The

The Dutchess True American was published at Poughkeepsie in
1828, by Peter K. Allen.

The Dutchess Inquirer was started in Aug. 1829, by Pet. K. Allen.

In 1830 it was changed to
The Anti Mason. It was under the charge of Jc^m M. Yethake
and Stephen Butler until 1831, when it was discon¬
tinued. It was soon after revived by Eliphaz Fay, and
was issued a short time as The Independence.

The Dutchess Republican was started in Aug. 1831, by Thos. S.
Ranney. In April, 1833, it was united with The Intel¬

The Poughkeepsie Casket was published by Killey & Lossing in

The Branch was issued a short time in 1836 hy Jos. H. Jackson.
The Youth’s Guide (semi-mo.) was issued in 1837 by Isaac Har¬
rington, jr.

The Thomsonian (medical) was issued at Poughkeepsie in 1840
by Thos. Lapham.

The Free Press was started at Fishkill in 1841 hy Fred. W. Rit¬
ter. In 1842 it was removed to Poughkeepsie ■ its name
was changed to
The Dutchess Free Press, and was continued until 1844.

The Temperance Safeguard was started at Poughkeepsie in 1843
by G. R. Lyman, and was continued 2 or 3 years.


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