Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 284
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BUFF AIL© CITY—was formed as a town from Clarence,
Feb. 8, 1810.1 Amherst was taken off in 1818, and Tonawanda
in 1836. Buffalo Tillage was incorp. April 2, 1813, re-organized
in 1815, and again in 1822, and incorp. as a city April 20, 1832,
with its limits enlarged by the addition of that part of the Mile
Strip Reservation2 s. of York and North Sts. By the provisions of a
new charter, granted April 13, 1853, the then town of “
was included within the city limits. The city lies at tho


E. extremity of Lake Erie, extending nearly 10 mi. along the
lake shore and the upper part of Niagara River, and occupies an
area of about 40 sq. mi. The principal streams are Big Buffalo
and Scajaquady3 Creeks,—the former emptying into Lake Erie
and the latter into Niagara River. The principal business part of the city is on the lake shore
around the harbor. The land in this locality is low, and was once considered “ an irreclaimable
morass; but it is now densely covered with substantial warehouses and large stores, intermingled
with factories, foundries, mechanics’ shops, and dwellings.”4

The site rises gradually, and attains in one or two places an elevation of about 100 ft.; but the
greater portion of the area occupies an extended plain of an average height of 50 ft. above the
lake.    On    the    “
Buffalo    Plainsand along the river at North Buffalo, are extensive quarries of

limestone,    furnishing    an    excellent building material.5 The city is regularly laid out, and the

streets are broad and straight. The flagging and paving are done in the most substantial manner,
and are kept in excellent repair.6 The main part of the city is supplied with wholesome water
from Niagara River by the Buffalo Water Works Company. The reservoir, situated on Niagara
between Connecticut and Vermont Sts., is 88 ft. higher than the river, and has a capacity of
13,500,000 gallons. The water is elevated by two force pumps, each of a capacity of 235 gallons,
and is distributed through 31 mi. of pipe.6 Lower Black Rock is supplied by the Jubilee Water
Works with water obtained from the Jubilee Springs. It is conducted through wooden pipes,
of which there are more than two miles laid.8 There are 5 post-offices in the city,—Buffalo, North
Buffalo, Buffalo Plains, Red Jacket, and Black Rock.

The harbor of Buffalo is formed by Big Buffalo Creek, along which for more than a mile is a
continuous line of wharves. A pier extends from the s. side of the harbor 1500 ft. into the lake,
forming an effectual barrier against the encroaching sands, which everywhere on the lake have a
tendency to accumulate on the
w. side of piers. > At its extremity is a lighthouse.7 The Erie
Canal enters the city along Niagara River, from which it is separated by a seawall, and extends
southward to near the mouth of Buffalo Creek, and thence eastward to Hamburgh St. The Erie
Basin, just sr. of the mouth of Buffalo Creek, protected lakeward by a breakwater, and the Ohio
Basin, about one and one-fourth mi. from the mouth of the creek, containing an area of 10 acres,
are both connected with the harbor and canal and are sufficiently deep to float the largest lake
vessels.10 A ship canal more than a mi. in length extends alojig the w. side of Big Buffalo Creek
parallel to the shore of the lake. This canal, the basins, tbe Erie Canal, and the harbor are all
connected by numerous slips. Six railroads terminate in the city; and another—the Buffalo
Pittsburgh—is in process of construction.11

of wooden pipe laid, fully supplying Black Bock and a part of
Buffalo; but, while the increase of population created a greater
demand for water, the supply from the springs diminished, and
in 1845 the citizens of Lower Black Hock purchased the works
and confined the supply to their own village.

9 The lighthouse is built entirely of stone and iron. It is 44
ft. high, 26 ft. in diameter at its base, and 12 ft. at the top. Tho
molehead upon which it stands is 160 ft. in diameter and has a
depth of 15 ft. below the surface of the water. The pier and
lighthouse were completed in 1833. It is furnished with a firs*
class dioptric Fresnel apparatus.

10 These basins were constructed by the State as parts of the
great system of internal navigation; hut their sites were fur¬
nished by the city. The Erie Basin cost $300,000, and the Ohio
Basin $60,000. They were commenced in 1848 and finished in
1858. Vessels driven by storms and failing'to gain an entrance
to the harbor find a capacious and sheltered retreat in the har¬
bor of Black Rock,—formed by a mole from Bird Island to Squaw
Island, a distance of 2915 yards. This, with the islands, forms a
harbor 4,565 yards long and from 88 to 220 yards wide, with an
area of 136 acres. Besides affording an exceedingly convenient
harbor, with an average depth of 15 feet, this work secures a
water-power of about 4$ ft. A ship lock is constructed at its
foot; and it is on the line of the Erie Canal. ■

11 Besides these, 5 plank roads, a macadamized road, and a
turnpike terminate in the city.


The city of Buffalo was taken off in 1832, and Tonawanda in
1836. The village of
“Black Rock,” in this town, was incorp.
April 24, 1837, and receives its name from the color of the rock
which outcrops at the ferry landing. The remaining part of the
town was organized as Black Bock, Feb. 14,1839; and in 1853 it


was annexed to the city, 2 gee p. 280.


Named from an Indian of that name, and pronounced Ska-


* Buffalo City Directory, 1858.


® There are 251 mi. of located streets within the city limits,
374 mi. of paved streets, 205,000 line or feet of stone sidewalks,
and 108 mi. of plank walks. There are 1,960 street lamps in
the city, lighted by gas furnished by the Buffalo Gas Light Com¬
pany. The present cost of the street improvements is estimated
at $2,000,000; and the aggregate of taxes for local improvements
in 1857 was $356,913.


The Buffalo Water Works Company was incorp. March 15,
1849. The original cost of the works was $400,000; and $65,000
of the earnings have been expended in extending the works.
Connected with them are 320 street hydrants, and 20 under¬
ground reservoirs, having an aggregate capacity of 407,850 gal.


with a capital of $20,000. At one time the company had 16 mi.


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