Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 308
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A tract 10 mi. by 40, on the e. side of this co., formed a part of the old Military Tract;1 a
portion in the n.w. corner, of 24,000 acres, was reserved by the St. Regis Indians,2 and the
remainder of the co. was included in Great Tract No. I. of the Macomb Purchase.8 Wm. Con¬
stable, agent and part owner of the last mentioned tract, and the executors of his estate, sold the
northern part, and actively assisted in promoting settlement.4

The earliest settlement in the co. was made at St. Regis, by a colony of Indians from Cauglma-
waga, on Lake St. Louis,5 and from Oswegatchie, under Father Anthony Gordon, a Jesuit, about
1760. They are now known as the St. Regis Indians, and. number about 1,000, of whom 420 reside
in this co., and the remainder on the n. side of the national boundary, which passes through
the village.6 During the Revolution a portion of the Indians joined the Americans; and Louis
Cook, one of their number, received a colonePs commission from Gen. Washington. In the war
of 1812 a part of the tribe joined the British and a part the Americans; and they are thus historic¬
ally divided into British and American parties.7 This tribe is gradually increasing in numbers,
although, from their filthy habits, they are frequent sufferers from virulent epidemic diseases.
They are mostly Catholics,—a Catholic mission being supported among them. A few profess to be
Methodists.8 Two schools are sustained by the State, though they are thinly attended, and appa¬
rently of little benefit. The first white settlements were made in Chateaugay in 1796, and in
other towns in the two northern ranges in 1800-02, by emigrants from Vermont. At the commence¬
ment of the war of 1812 the population of the co. numbered about 2,500. In 1813-14 it became
the seat of important military events, in the abortive attempt to invade Canada. Upon the with¬
drawal of the troops from French Mills in Feb. 1814, the co. was overrun by the enemy, who visited
Chateaugay, Malone, and Hopkinton, and seized a considerable amount of military stores.9
In 1832, the cholera appeared at St. Regis, spreading a panic throughout the whole region. Since
the completion of the k. r., systematic efforts have been successfully made to bring into market
the valuable timber in the central and southern parts of the co.

BANTBOB10—was formed from Dickinson, June 15, 1812. Brandon was taken off in 1828.
It is an interior town, lying n. w. of the center of the co. Its surface is gently undulating,
with a general northerly inclination. The principal streams are the Little Salmon and Deer
Rivers. The underlying rock is Potsdam sandstone, appearing only in*the valleys of the streams.
The soil is sandy in the n. and a clay and loam in the-s. Soutii Bangor, (Bangor p. o.,)
North Bangor, (Amador p.o.,) and West Bangor, (p.o.,) are small villages. CooltS
Corners is a p. o. in the n. part. The first settlement was made in 1806. Religious meetings

ton, by Jas. Fisk. During the year it passed into the
hands of J. S. Sargent, and was published as
The Messenger for a few months.

The Jeffersonian was begun in 1853, at Malone, by J. R. Flanders,
and was issued about 2 years.

1 Embracing the present towns of Chateaugay, Burke, Bell-
mont, and Franklin. Township 7 was patented to Jas. Cald¬
well; No. 8, to Col. McGregor; Nos. 9 and 10, to different parties
in later times.—
Hough's Hist, of St. Lawrence and Franklin Cos.

2 From 1816 to 1825 the Indians ceded 10,000 acres of this re¬
servation to the State. The remainder of the lands are held in
common, and are managed by trustees elected annually.

8 Among those who became directly proprietors under this
title were John McVickar, Hezekiah B. Pierrepont, (executor of
Wm. Constable,) Wm. S. Smith, Abijah Hammond, Richard
Harrison, Theodosius Fowler, Jonathan Dayton, Robert Gil¬
christ, and James D. Le Ray.

4 These townships were named and numbered as follows by
the original proprietors:—

1. Macomb.    10.    Williamsville.    19.    Cheltenham.

2. Cormachus.    11.    Westerly.    20.    Margate.

3. Constable.    12.    Ewerettaville.    21.    Harrietstown.

4. Moira.    13.    Dayton.    22.    Loughneagh.

5. Bangor.    14.    Ennis.    23.    Killarney.

6. Malone.    15.    Fowler.    24.    Barrymore.

7. Annastown.    16.    Johnsmanor. 25.    Mt. Morris.

8. St. Patrick.    17.    Gilchrist.    26.    Covehill.

9. Shelah.    18.    Brighton.    27.    Tipperary.

8 An expansion of the St. Lawrence above the Lachine Rapids,
in Canada.

6 This line was surveyed after the treaty of 1795, and intended
to be run on the 45th degree of N. latitude; but a new survey
in 1818 showed that the line was run too far n. By the treaty
of 1842, the old line was restored, and permanent monuments
were placed at the crossing of roads, and navigable streams, and
at intervals of one mile through the forests.

1 This distinction is hereditary from mother to eon, and the
annuities of each government are bestowed accordingly, without
reference to the locality on either side of the line.

8 The Black River Conference has supported a mission at
Hogansburgh since 1847.

9 There is good reason to believe that some of the inhabitants
were traitors to their country, and supplied the enemy with
cattle and provisions and kept them informed in regard to
public movements. Extensive frauds were perpetrated upon tho
National Treasury, soon after the war, in the way of claims for
alleged damages and losses in Wilkinson’s campaign; but the
plot was detected, and some of the guilty ones were lodged
in the State prison. A most remarkable scheme to defraud the
State and non-resident landholders was devised about 1818, and
continued until effectually ended by law in 1822. This con¬
sisted in the voting of excessive bounties for the destruction of
wolves and other noxious animals, to be paid by the towns and
co. As the law then existed, the State allowed as much bounty
as the co.; and the result of the scheme was to throw almost
the entire burden of the tax upon non-residents and landholders;
but, to render the home burden endurable, large sums were re¬
mitted by the claimants toward paying the
residents’ taxes. The
bounties amounted on grown wolves to $60 per head, and led
to shameless frauds, and the issue of great numbers of certifi¬
cates upon the heads of dogs and other animals, and upon the
same head several times over. In one instance a deer’s head
was passed for that of a wolf. These certificates were bought
by co. officials, and passed the co. audit. A commission was ap¬
pointed by law to visit the locality and search into the fraud;
and, although no convictions were obtained, a large sum was
saved to the State. The commissioners stated that they found
these certificates, to some extent, the “ currency of the co.” The
total number of bounties issued and sums allowed, in 1820-21-
22, were as follows:—Wolves, 929, $51,685; panthers, 25, $1075 :
foxes, 587, $1852.50; bears, 93, $243; besides small sums for minor
animals, amounting, in all, to $55,521.50, or nearly $12.25 to
every man, woman, and child in the co. Those who had been
concerned in this affair quickly sunk into merited obscurity,
and have since remained objects of public contempt.

10 This town embraces township No. 5 of Great Tract No. II. of
the Macomb Purchase.


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