JEFFERSON COUNTY. 355
A©AMS1—was formed from Mexico, April 1, 1802, and named in honor of John Adams, Ex-
President. Rodman was taken off in 1804. ' It is an interior town,' lying s. w. of the center of the co.
Its surface is rolling, and generally inclined toward the lake, and, with the exception of its s. e,
border, is underlaid by Trenton limestone. Several remarkable upheavals of this formation occur
along its n. and w. borders, and a bold terrace extends into Watertown and Rutland. It is well
watered by the N. Sandy and Stony Creeks. The soil is a clayey loam, with occasional sand and
gravel, especially along the ancient lake ridge, which may be traced through this town. It is very
productive, and equally adapted to dairying and the cultivation of grains. Manufactures are car¬
ried on to some extent. Adams, (p. v.,) situated on North Sandy Creek and the W. & R. R. R., con¬
tains 4 churches, a bank, a seminary, printing office, and several small manufactories. Pop. 1,268/
Adams Ceaater (p. v.) and Smitliville (p. v.) have each about 250 inhabitants. Appling2
and North Adams (p. o.) are hamlets. The town was mostly settled under Isaac W. Bostwick,
agent of Nicholas Low, the proprietor.3 The first sermon was preached in 1802, by Rev. Mr. Wood¬
ward, a missionary.4 A private academy—now called the Philharmonic Institute—has been taught
at Adams Village for many years. The remains of several ancient fortifications are found in town.
AUEXANDMIA—was formed from Brownville and Le Ray, April 3, 1821, and named from
Alexander Le Ray, a son of the proprietor. Theresa was taken off in 1841. It lies on the St.
Lawrence, in the isr. extremity of the co., and embraces the e. part of Wells Island and a con¬
siderable portion of the Thousand Islands. The surface underlaid by gneiss is rough and rocky,
but that portion underlaid by sandstone is level, with a thin, clayey and sandy soil. A vein of lead
has been discovered near Redwood, and examined to the depth of 40 feet. Alexandria Bay5
(Alexandria p. o.) contains 24 houses, Plessis6 (p. v.) 32, and Med wood7 (p. v.) 429 inhabit¬
ants. Settlement commenced in 1811, under Le Ray. An engagement took place within the
limits of this town during the war of 1812.8 An elegant Ref. Prot. D.. church was erected at Alex¬
andria Bay in 1848-51.9
ANTWERP—was formed from Le Ray, April 5, 1810, and named from the Antwerp Com¬
pany.10 It is the extreme e. town in the co. The n. and e. portions are broken by low rocky
ridges parallel to the river. The s. w. part is more level. The soil in the valleys is a clayey loam,
and is very fertile.11 The ridges are made up of masses of gneiss,12 white crystalline limestone,13
and sandstone.14 Between the gneiss and sandstone in this town are several of the richest iron
mines in the State. The “Sterling Mine”15 lies about 3 mi. n. of Antwerp Village; another,
of less extent, 1 mi. n. ; a third, known as the “ Keene Mine,”16 on the borders of St. Lawrence
co.; and a fourth, known as the “ Parish Mine,”17 immediately adjacent. In the same range are
found the mines of Rossie and Gouverneur, which have furnished most of the ore used at the
furnaces in this region. Bog iron ore is found near Ox Bow.19 One or two sulphur springs are
found in town. Antwerp, (p.v.,) on the P. and WVR. R., was incorp. July, 1853. It contains
as the Redwood Manufac. Co. A stream a few rods in length,
flowing from Mud to Butterfield Lake, has here a fall of 94 feet,
and furnishes water power to a grist and saw mill.
9 The “Neptune” and “Fox,” two small American armed
vessels, captured a brigade of bateaux belonging to the enemy,
July 20, 1813, and took their prizes into Cranberry Creek,- in
this town. They were pursued, and a sharp skirmish ensued,
resulting in the retreat of the British with considerable loss.
10 This church was built through the agency of Rev. G. W.
Bethune, of Brooklyn, and is called “ The Church of the Thou¬
sand Isles.” A parsonage was built in 1852. The sites for
both edifices were given by Francis Depau. The census, reports
6 churches; 2 Prot. E., Bap., M. E., .Presb., and R. C.
11 This land company, formed in Holland, bought Great Tract
No. IV., within which this town is situated. For particulars see
Hough’s Hist. Jeff. Co., p. 58-61.
32 According to the last census, this town produces more butter
than any other town in the co.; and, with one exception, it
has the greatest number of cows of any town in the State.
13 From 1805 to 1828 about 100 pairs of millstones were manu¬
factured from this rock in this town.
u This limestone is especially valuable for lime and as a flux
for iron ore.
1® This sandstone furnishes an excellent building material, ana
is used for the lining of furnaces.
18 Discovered by Hopestill Foster; owned and worked by Jas.
u On the farm of Hiram B. Keene, and owned by a company.
18 Owned by Geo. Parish, of Ogdensburgh.
w This ore is of the red specular variety. The region in which
it is found is one of the richest in the country for specimens of
Aleppo, or No. 7 of the Eleven Towns.
Named from Maj. Daniel Appling, the hero of the battle of
The first settlers came on tor permanent residence in 1800;
among them were Nicholas and Alexander Salisbury, Solomon
Smith, Daniel Comstock, Daniel Smith, Abram Ripley, Jonathan
Cable, Stephen Shippey, and Enon D’Estaing. The first inn was
kept by Abel Hart, and the first store by Jesse Hale. Daniel
Smith erected the first grist and sawmills in 1801-02, the former
superseding the stump mortars of the first season. The first
birth was that of Edmund Salisbury; the first marriage, that
of Daniel Ellis to Mrs. A. Salisbury, widow of Alexander Salis-
bury, in 1802; and the first death, that of Alexander Salisbury,
drowned in 1801. Schools were first taught in 1803.
Rev. Chas. G. Einney, Pres, of Oberlin College, was a law stu¬
dent in this town. The census reports 9 churches; 3 Bap., 2
Seventh Day Bap., 2 Cong., M. E., and Prot. E.
This place was surveyed and laid out as a village for Le Ray
in 1818. A custom house was established here in 1828.- Sunken
Rock Lighthouse was built in 1847. It is an important wooding
station for steamers, and within a few years has become a favor¬
ite resort for fishing and excursion parties among the Thou¬
1 Named from a town in France. Formerly called “ Flat Rock”
from the naked sandstone in the vicinity. A grist mill was built
here in 1817 for Le Ray. Wm. Merrill, the first innkeeper, was
murdered in 1826.
8 A glass factory was established at this place in 1833, by
John S. Foster. It is devoted to the manufacture of cylinder