Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 372
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372    KINGS    COUNTY.

where they perished by hundreds and thousands from violence, cold, foul air, and stinted food.1
During the War of 1812 a considerable amount of voluntary labor was expended in erecting a line
of fortifications around the city, and bodies of troops were stationed there to protect the people.

FLATBUSH 2—was chartered by Gov. Stuyvesant in 1652, and its rights were confirmed by
Gov. Nicoll, Oct. 11, 1667, and by Gov. Dongan, Nov. 20, 1685.3 It was recognized by the State
Government March 7, 1788. New Lots was taken off in 1852. It is the central town in the co.,
lying immediately s. of Brooklyn. A low, broad range of hills extends along the
n. border,
occupying nearly one-fourth of its surface. The remainder of the town is level. The soil is light
and sandy, but productive. Flatbush (p. v.) is a long, scattered village, extending through
the center of the town. It contains 4 churches
,4 the Erasmus Hall Academy,5 and many elegant
dwellings. Greenfield is a thinly settled village plat in the s. w. corner of the town. A part
of Greenwood Cemetery lies in the
n. w. corner. Calvary Cemetery lies e. of the village. The
first settlement was made by the Dutch at an early period.

FEATEANDS®—was incorp. by patent under Gov. Nicoll, Oct. 4, 1667, confirmed by Gov.
Dongan, March 11, 1685,7 and recognized by#the State Government March 7, 1788. It is the
e. town in the co. The surface is very flat, as indicated by the name; and a considerable portion
consists of salt marshes bordering upon Jamaica Bay
.8 Several small, marshy islands belong to
the town
.9 FiatlandS (p. o.) is a farming settlement. Canarsie10 (p. o.) is a hamlet, upon
the road leading to the bay. The first settlement was made by the Dutch, in 1636. Ex-Gov. Wouter
Yan Twiller had a tobacco farm in this town while it was under Dutch rule. There are 3 churches
in town; 2 M. E. and Ref. Prot. D.

GRAVESEND11—was granted to English settlers, by patent under Gov. Keift, Dec. 19,1645,
and confirmed by Gov. Nicoll, Aug. 13, 1667, and by Gov. Dongan, Sept. 10, 1686.12 It was
recognized as a town March 7, 1788. It is the most southerly town in the co. The surface is
generally very level. A beach and ridge of sand hills extend along the coast, and in the rear of
these are extensive salt meadows. Coney Island is separated from the mainland by a narrow
tidal current flowing through the marshes
.13 Gravesend, (p. v.,) near the center, is compactly
built, and was formerly fortified with palisades. It was the county seat prior to 1686.14 Union*
ville is a small settlement on the bay, near the w. line. The Cove is a settlement on Sheeps
Head Bay. This town was settled before 1640, by English Quakers, from Mass. Lady Deborah
Moody—a woman of rank, education, and wealth—was a prominent person in this enterprise.
The liberal terms of their first grant were not fully regarded by the Dutch; but the prudence and
firmness of Lady Moody eventually secured a good degree of respect and a more indulgent
policy toward them. In 1655 the settlement was saved from destruction by North River Indians
by a guard from the city. In 1656 the people petitioned for and obtained 3 big guns for their
protection. In 1659 the town agreed to give Henry Brazier 500 gilders for building a mill, and

f The patentees named in the first instrument were Elbert
Elbqrts, Covert Lockermans,Roeliffe Martens, Pieter Claes, Wm.
Garrits, Thos. Hillehrants, Stephen Coertsen, and Coert Stevens;
and those in the second were E. Elberts, R. Martens, Pieter
Classen, Wm. Garretsen, Coert Stevens,. Lucas Stevensen, and
John Teunlssen. The annual quitrent was 14 bushels of wheat.

3 These marshes and flat lands produce large quantities of
hay.    ,

9 The principal of these are Bergen Island, on the bay, and
Barren Island, upon the coast. Upon the latter island is a largo
hone boiling establishment, to which place are removed all the
dead animals from NewYork. The business is very extensive,
and large quantities of hides, fat, hones, hair, and manure are
annually produced.

1° Named from a tribe of Indians that formerly occupied this

11 Named from the English town of this name, or from the
deep sounds on the shore.—
Thompson’s Hist., II, 169.

12 The grantees named in the first patent were Lady Deborah
Moody, Sir Henry Moody, Bart., Ensign Geo. Baxter, and Sergt,
James Hubbard; those in the second were Thos. Delavail, Jas,
Hubbard, Wm.Bound, sr., Wm. Goulding, and John Tilton; and
those in the third were James Hubbard, John Tilton, jr., Wm.
Goulder, Nicholas Stillwell, and Jocham Guilock. The quitrent
was 6 bushels of wheat.

13 “Chnysis Island,” from a family of that name. It is a favor¬
ite summer resort. A fine shell road and bridge connect it with
the mainland. It embraces 60 acres of arable land, and about
half a dozen families winter there.

The village plat embraced 10 acres, subdivided into 39 lots
for houses and gardens. A street surrounded this plat. The
land around was laid out in lots diverging from the central


The first prison ship was the Whitby; but this and another
were burned, and, in April, 1778, the Jersey became the receiving
ship for prisoners. The Hope and the Falmouth, anchored near
by, were the hospital ships; and upon these most of the deaths oc¬
curred. It is reported that 11,500 prisoners died upon these ships
during the war. The persistent barbarity and cold-hearted in¬
humanity practiced hy the British toward these prisoners finds
no parallel in the history of civilized nations; and the horri¬
ble sufferings of the prisoners in their foul dungeons, reeking
■with filth, disease, and the air of the charnel house carried
through months and years, completely cast into the shade the
lesser horrors of the Middle Passage, or of the Black Hole of Cal¬
cutta. The graves of these martyrs of freedom were uncovered
while grading for the Navy Yard, in 1808. Twenty hogsheads
of bones were collected, deposited in 13 coffins,—representing the
13 original States,—and, May 26, 1808, they were buried upon
Hudson Avenue, near the Navy Yard, under the auspices of the
Tammany Society. The land upon which they were interred was
given for that purpose by John Jackson. Several years since,
Benj. Romaine inclosed the remains in a vault; and, April 11,
1851, an association was incorp. for collecting funds to build a
Onderdonk’s Hist. Prison Ships.


a Named “Midwout” (Mid wood) by the Dutch.


In the first patent, Jan Snedecor, Arent Van Hatten, Jo¬
hannes Megapolensis, and others, were named as grantees; and
in the second, Rev. J. Megapolensis, Cornelius Van Ruyven, J. P.
Adrien Hegeman, Jan Snedecor, Jan Stryker. Frans Barents,
(pastqr,) Jacob Stryker, and Cornelius Janse Bougart were
Patents, IV, 48, 51.


Ref. Prot. D., (formed in 1654,) M. E., Prot. E., and R. C.


tered by the regents.


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