NIAGARA COUNTY. ' 453
American shore; and great excitement prevailed in consequence. The steamer Caroline, engaged
in furnishing re-inforcements and supplies to the insurgents, was cut from her moorings, on the
night of Dec. 29, by a British force, set on fire, and sent over the falls. This event was the occa¬
sion of a long diplomatic controversy between the Governments of the United States and Great
Britain, and at one time war • seemed almost inevitable. Since that time no event has occurred to
disturb the peaceful progress of improvement.
CAMBRIA—was formed from “ Willink,” (now Aurora, Erie co.,) March 11, 1808. Hart-
land, Niagara, and Porter were taken off in 1812, Lewiston in 1818, and a part of Lockport in
1824. It is an interior town, w. of the center of the co. The mountain ridge1 crosses through the
center of the town and divides it into two nearly equal portions. In the n. and s. the surface is
level or undulating. The lake ridge crosses the n. part of the town. The principal stream is
Twelve Mile Creek. The soil consists of alternations of sandy and clayey loam. Pekin (p.v.)
lies partly in Lewiston, but principally in this town. It contains 2 churches and about 60
dwellings. North Ridge and Cambria, in the n. part of the town, are p. offices. The first
settlement was -made in 1800, by Philip Beach, from Le Roy.2 There are 2 churches in town,
Cong, and M. E.
MARTLAND3—was formed from Cambria, June 1, 1812. Royalton was taken off in 1817,
Somerset in 1823, and a part of Newfane in 1824. It is the central town upon the e. border of the
co. The surface is level or gently undulating, the greatest inequality being along the lake ridge,
which crosses the s. part of the town. The principal streams are Eighteen Mile and Johnsons
Creeks. The soil s. of the ridge is a clayey loam, and n. it is a sandy and gravelly loam. John¬
sons Creek, (p.v.,) located on the creek of the same name where it crosses the lake ridge, con¬
tains 1 church and has a population of 114. Ha.rtla.nd Corners, (Hartland p. o.,) on the
ridge in the w. part of the town, contains about 18 dwellings. Middleport4 is partly in this town.
The first settlement was made in 1803, by John and David Morrison.5 The first church (Bap.)
was organized at Johnsons Creek in 1817. There are 5 churches in town.6
LEWISTON7—was formed from Cambria, Peb. 27, 1818. It is the central town upon the w.
border of the co. The mountain ridge extends through the town, dividing it into two nearly equal
portions. Along the base of this ridge the surface is broken or rolling, but elsewhere it is level.
Gill and Six Mile Creeks, and several smaller streams, take their rise in this town, and Niagara
River forms its w. boundary. The soil is a sandy loam. The Devil’s Hole—a dark chasm, 150 ft.
deep, upon the high bank of the Niagara, in the extreme s. part of the town—was the scene of a
sanguinary battle during the Old French War.8 Five mi. above Ft. Niagara, bordering upon the
river, is a flat of several acres, about 65 ft. lower than the surrounding country. It is called Five
Mile Meadow: it was here that the British forces landed the night before the capture of Fort
Niagara, in Dec. 1814.9 Lewiston,10 (p.v.,) incorp. April 17, 1822, was reserved by the State
and patented by single lots. It is situated on Niagara River, at the base of the mountain ridge.
It is the terminus of the Lewiston & N. F. R. R., and the head of navigation from Lake Ontario.
It contains 4 churches, and has a pop. of 1,014. The Lewiston Suspension Bridge across the
Niagara River was erected in 1850 and ;51.n Dickersonville (p. o.) is a hamlet. South
Pekin is a p. o. in the s. e. part. Pekin lies partly in this town. Fort Gray, a temporary forti¬
fication erected during the War of 1812, occupied the verge of the mountain ridge just above the vil¬
lage of Lewiston. The Seminary of our Lady of Angels, a Catholic institution, is situated on
Brown moved into town the same year, and Abel Barnum and
Oliver Castle in 1805. The first death was that of Isaac South-
well, in 1806; the first inn was opened by Jephtha Dunn, in 1809;
and the first store, by Dan’l Van Horn, in 1816. The first school
was taught by Nancy Judson, in the summer of 1813.
6 Bap., Friends, M. E., Prot. M, and R. C.
I Named from Gov. Morgan Lewis, at the suggestion of Judge
8 See p. 452. 9 See p. 280.
10 An academy was established at this place in 1828. Beside#
participating in the general fund, it was endowed by the Legis¬
lature with the proceeds of the ferry license, which some years
yielded $800 to $900. When the Lewiston Suspension Bridge
was finished, the ferry was abandoned and the academy dis¬
II This bridge was built by two joint stock companies,—one
incorp. by the Legislature of N. York and the other by the
Canadian Parliament. The roadway is 849 ft. long, 20 ft. wide,
and 60 ft. above the water. Cost of the structure, $58,000.
Upon the verge of this ridge, in the e. part of the town, are an
ancient fortification and burial places, occupying about 6 acres.
Rude iron implements, pieces of copper, fragments of earthen¬
ware, charred wood, and corncobs have been plowed up within
the area. Nearly in the center, overlaid by sandstone slabs,
was a deep pit filled with human bones, many of which ap¬
parently belonged to men of almost giant size.—Turner’s Hist.
John Forsyth and Walter Neal settled in the town in 1804,
and Chapman Hawley, Daniel Howell, Joseph Hewett, James
Prentice, and Amariah Stoughton soon afterward. The first
birth was that of Philip Beach, jr., in 1803; and the first death,
that of Nehemiah Street, a traveler, who was murdered in 1790.
Philip Beach opened the first inn, in 1800, and Joshua Shep¬
pard the first store, in 1815. Joseph Hewett built the first saw¬
mill, in 1800, and Christian Howder the first gristmill, in 1815.
The first school was taught by Mrs. Neal, in 1808.
Named from Hartland, Vt.
* See page 456.
* Zebulon Barnum, Jedediah Riggs, Isaac Southwell, and Dan’l