NIAGARA COUNTY. 455
surface is level. Cayuga and Gill Creeks are the principal streams. The soil is a heavy clay.
Goat Island and the American part of Niagara Falls belong to this town. At Suspension Bridge,
on the river bank, is a sulphur spring, which has been fitted up for the accommodation of
visitors. Niagara Falls, (p.v.,) incorp. July 7, 1848, is situated on Niagara River, at the
cataract. It is the terminus of the Rochester & N. F. R. R., of the N. F. & Lewiston R. R., of the
Buffalo & N. F. R. R., and of the Canandaigua & N. F. R. R. It contains 5 churches, 1 newspaper
office, 11 hotels, and several manufacturing establishments.1 Pop. 2,976. The village owes its ex¬
istence to its proximity to the great cataract. Thousands of visitors, from every part of the U. S.
and from almost every country in the world, annually visit this, one of nature’s greatest wonders.
Nearly all the business of the community is connected with this periodical visitation, and consists
of hotel keeping, livery business, and matters of a kindred nature. A large and by no means
unimportant business has grown out of the sale of spar ornaments and fancy articles made by tlie
Indians. Niagara, City, [Suspension Bridge p.o.,) incorp. June 8, 1854, is situated on Niagara
River, 2 mi. below the falls. The Rochester & N. F. R. R. connects at this place with the Lewis¬
ton & N. F. R. R., and with the Great Western Railway'across the Suspension Bridge.2 The vil¬
lage contains 6 churches, a newspaper office, 15 hotels, and a charitable institution known as the
De Veaux College for Destitute Orphans and Children.3 Pop. 1,365. This place participates
with Niagara Falls in the business made by the annual influx of visitors to the cataract. No
places of equal size on the Continent have a greater amount of hotel accommodations than these.
La Salle is a p. o.. at the mouth of Cayuga Creek. In the fall of 1678 the French voyageurs
La Salle, Tonti, and Father Hennepin, with their companions, established themselves at the mouth
of Cayuga Creek and remained until the “ Griffin” was launched the following season.4 Other
places along the river were temporarily occupiecf by the French at different times; but the first
permanent settlement was made at Schlosser in 1759, by John Stedman, accompanied by his
brothers Wm. and Philip.5 The first religious services were conducted by Father Hennepin, at the
time of the French sojourn at Cayuga Creek.6 There are now 12 churches in town.7
FENBRETON8—was formed from Niagara, April 16, 1827. It is the central town on the s.
border of the co. The surface is level or gently undulating. Tonawanda Creek forms the s.
bounds of the town, and Sawyers Creek crosses the w. part. The soil is generally a clayey loam.
Pendleton, (p. o.,) on Tonawanda Creek, contains 1 church and 16 dwellings. Pendleton
Center, Beach Ridge, and Mapleton are p. offices. The first settlement was made in
1805, by Jacob Christman.9 There are 5 churches in town.10
PORTER11—was formed from Cambria, June 1, 1812. Wilson was taken off in 1818. It is
the most westerly town on the lake shore. Its surface is level. Four Mile and Six Mile Creeks,
and the w. branch of Twelve Mile Creek, cross the town in a’ northerly direction, and Niagara
River forms its w. boundary. The soil along the lake shore is composed principally of a marly
clay; in the central and southern parts it is a sandy and gravelly loam. Besides the crops which
visions of the will of Mr. De Veaux, the president of the college
must always be a clergyman of the Prot. E. Church, and the
institute itself under the control of the Diocese ofWestern New
York. Members of the school are appointed by the board of
trustees, the children of parents belonging to the Prot. E. Church
having the preference. When once received, the children are
under the sole charge of the trustees until they attain their ma¬
jority. See Senate Doc. 1858, No. 118. The college reports an¬
nually to the Legislature.
4 See page 452.
6 During the period of English occupancy a small settlement
grew up at Schlosser. There were, besides the Stedman house,
(which was a large and spacious 2^ story building,) about 15
other dwellings. The Stedmans moved away in 1795 and left
Jesse Ware in possession. Judge Augustus Porter settled at
Schlosser in 1806. The first sawmill was built by John
Stedman. The first school was taught by Ezekiel Hill, in 1807.
6 In his account of their sojourn Father Hennepin says, £11
had one hut especially designed for observing prayers in holy-
days and Sundays.”
i Bap., Presb., Prot. E., M. E., and R. C. at Niagara Falls,
Cong., Ref. P. D., Evang., Prot.E., Presb., and M. E. at Niagara
City, and M. E. at Cayuga Creek.
8 Named from Sylvester Pendleton Clark, Ex-Gov. of Grand
9 Among the first settlers were Martin Van Slyke and John
and Adam Fulmer. The first death was that of Martin Van
Slyke, in 1814. S. P. Clark kept the first inn, in 1822, and Jerry
Jenks the first store, the same year. The first school was taught
bv Dawson, in the winter of 1816.
"w 2 M. E., Presb., Luth., and R. C.
u Named from Judge Augustus Porter.
A hydraulic canal has recently been constructed from a point
on Niagara River about -J- mi. above the rapids, diagonally across
the point of land upon which the village is situated, to near the
river bank i mi. below the falls. Along the bank is a long
basin, in which the canal terminates, and from which tho water
is discharged through a great number of races into the river
below. This canal is $ of a mi. long, 70 ft. wide, and 10 ft. deep,
and will maintain a running stream equal in quantity to 2436
cubic ft. per second. The company by whom the canal has been
built was organized March 22, 1853, with a capital of $500,000.
One of the largest paper mills in the U. S., on Bath Island, was
burned during the past year, (1858.)
The Niagara Suspension Bridge, which crosses the river at
this place, was commenced in 1852 and finished in 1855. It is
821 ft. in length from center to center of the towers, and 247 ft.
above the water. It has 2 floors,—the lower for a carriage way,
and the upper for a rail way, upon which 4 rails are so laid as
to make tracks of 3 different gauges. The cost of the structure
was about $400,000, and the stock of the company $500,000.
The first line was got across the river at this place by the aid of
a kite. With this a larger cord was drawn over; and finally a
rope, upon which pulleys could be run, bearing the wires of
which the bridge is composed. The chief engineer was John A.
The De Veaux College was established according to the pro¬
visions of the will of Samuel De Veaux, who bequeathed for that
purpose personal property to the amount of $154,432 and real
estate valued at $36,213, besides 330 acres of inalienable land.
The building was erected in 1855-56. It is built of stone, has 2
stories and an attic above the ground story, and a front of 100 ft.,
with a depth of 54 ft. The members of the school are supplied
by the institution with food, clothing, and books. By the pro¬