Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 475
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subsidence, as the faces of the cliffs are nearly perpendicular, and the surface of the rocks above
is much cracked and broken.1

The co. seat is located at the city of Syracuse. The courthouse, a beautiful structure, built of
Onondaga limestone and elaborately finished, is situated on W. Genesee St., near the center of the
city.2 It is one of the finest buildings of the kind in the State.3 The Onondaga Penitentiary, a
city and co. prison and workhouse, is a commodious brick edifice, situated upon an eminence a mi.
N. e. of the courthouse. It contains apartments for a jail, and is also used for the imprisonment
of criminals sentenced for short terms. Prisoners are received from Oswego and Madison cos.
The clerk’s office is a fireproof brick building, situated at the corner of Church and North Salina
Sts. It contains rooms for the Surrogate and Supervisors. The poorhouse is located upon a farm
of 34 acres on Onondaga Hill, 4 mi. s. w. of Syracuse. The average number of inmates is 200,
supported at a weekly cost of $1.26 each. The building is commodious, but poorly ventilated.
Little attention is paid to the improvement of the inmates; and in accommodations, cleanliness, and
attention to the sick and insane, the institution is not above the avetage of similar institutions in
the State.

The Erie Canal extends e. and w. through near the center of the co. The Oswego Canal ex¬
tends from the Erie at Syracuse,
n. through Salina and Clay, to Lake Ontario at Oswego. The
N. Y. Central R. R. extends through Manlius, De Witt, Syracuse, Geddes, Camillus, Yan Buren, and
Elbridge. From Syracuse two divisions of this
r. r. extend westward to Rochester, one via Clyde
and Lyons, called the New Road, and the other via Auburn and Geneva, called the Old Road.
The Oswego & Syracuse R.R. extends from Syracuse n. through Geddes, Van Buren, and Ly¬
sander ; and the Syracuse, Binghamton & New York R. R. extends from Syracuse s. through Onon¬
daga, De Witt, La Fayette, Fabius, and Tully, uniting with the N. Y. & Erie R. R. at Binghamton.
The Union R. R. is a short road extending from the
n. terminus of the Binghamton road to the
Erie Canal, in Geddes.

Sixteen newspapers are published in the co.; 4 daily, 10 weekly, 1 semi-monthly, and 1 monthly.4

of Slavery,” was editor at one time. In 1821 it passed
into the hands of Cephas S. McConnell, and was
changed to

The Onondaga Journal. In 1827 Vivus W. Smith became proprie¬
tor, and in 1829 he removed it to Syracuse and united
it with the Syracuse Advertiser,—the combined paper
taking the name of

Tlie Onondaga Standard, Sept. 10,1829, published by
Wyman & Smith. S. F., T. A., and A. L. Smith, W. L.
Crandal, and Marcellus Farmer were subsequently in-
. terested in its publication at different times till 1848,
when it passed into the hands of Agan & Summers. In
1856 Agan sold his interest to Wm. Summers; and the
paper is now published by Summers
& Brother.

Tlie Syracuse Daily Standard was started in June,
1846, by Smith & Agan, and was continued 3 months.
It was revived January 1, 1850, and is now published
by Summers
& Brother.

The Onondaga Gazette was established at Syracuse in April,
1823, by John Durnford, and was the first paper started
at Syracuse. In about a year it was changed to

The Syracuse Gazette and General Advertiser, and continued
until 1829, when it was united with the Onondaga

The Syracuse Advertiser was started in 1825 by John F. Wy¬
man & Thos. B. Barnum; Norman Rawson was after¬
ward connected with it, but John F. Wyman soon as¬
sumed the entire control, and continued it till 1829,
when it was united with the Journal and its name
changed to the Standard.

The Salina Sentinel was started in October, 1826, in what is now
the First Ward of Syracuse, by Reuben St. John. In
1827 it was changed to

The Salina Herald, and it was issued a short time by Josiah

The Courier was published at Jordan a short time in 1831 by
Fred. Prince. In 1832 it was removed to Salina and
changed to

The Salina Courier and Enquirer, but was discontinued after
a few numbers.

The Onondaga Republican was started at Syracuse in 1830 by
W. S. Campbell. In 1834 it passed into the hands of
J. B. Clark & Co., and its name was changed to

The Constitutionalist. In 1835 L. A. Miller became its proprie¬
tor, and changed it to

The Onondaga Chief. In 1837 it was sold to J. M. Patterson
and published as

The Syracuse Whig. In 1838 J. K. Barlow became proprietor,
and continued it about 1 year.

The Syracuse American was started at Syracuse in 1835 by
John Adams, and was continued about 1 year.

The American Patriot was started at Franklin Village (now


These lakes are sometimes called crater lakes,’' from
their peculiar form, and sometimes “ green lakes,” from the
color of their waters.


The first courts were held in barns and private residences
at Onondaga, Levana, on the shore of Cayuga Lake, Cayuga
co., and Ovid, Seneca co. The first courthouse was erected at
Onondaga Hill, in 1805-06. The commissioners appointed to
select the site for the courthouse were Asa Danforth, George
Ballard, and RosWell Tousley. In 1829 an act was passed to
remove the co. seat to the village of Syracuse, and John Smith,
Oren Hutchinson, and Samuel Forman were commissioners to
select the site. The courthouse was finally built on a lot about
midway between the then rival villages of Syracuse and Salina.
It was destroyed by fire in 1856, and the present structure was
erected soon after. The first co. officers were Seth Phelps,
First Judge; Benj. Ledyard, Cleric; John Harris, Sheriff; and
Moses De Witt,


The library of the Court of Appeals is kept in the court¬


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