Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 617
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SENECA FALLS—was formed from Junius, March 26, 1829. It lies upon the w. hank of
Cayuga Lake, n. of the center of the co. The surface is nearly flat, and it is elevated 30 to 50 ft.
above Cayuga Lake. The shores of the lake are low and shelving, and the
n. portion is swampy.
Seneca River flows
e. and n. through the center of the town, its valley dividing the town into two
distinct parts. The river flows over a series of ledges into a deep chasm apparently worn by its waters.
e. and s. w. of tbe village are extensive gypsum quarries. The soil is a stiff, hard clay in the s. and
e., a sandy loam in the n. w., and aheavy vegetable muck in tbe n. e. Seneca, Falls, (p. v.,)1 upon
Seneca River, near tbe center of the town, was incorp. April 22,1831. It is a station upon the N. Y. C.
R. R. and the Seneca Canal. The total fall is 51 feet, and furnishes an abundance of water-power,
which is largely improved. It contains 7 churches, the Seneca Falls Academy, a union school, 2 news¬
paper offices, extensive manufactories of fire engines, pumps, machinery, iron, and woolen goods, and
a great variety of other articles.2 Pop. about 4,000. The first settlement was made hy Job Smith, from
Ulster co., upon the present site of the village in 1787; he left in 1793. The first permanent settler
was Lawrence Yan Clief, in 1789.3 The first religious services were held hy M. E. missionaries,
about 1797; and the first regular minister was Rev. Matthew Stewart, (Presb.,) in 1804.4


TYRE—was formed from Junius, March 26, 1829. It is the n. e. corner town of the co. The
e. half is a swamp, being the s. termination of the Montezuma Marshes. The w. half is occupied
hy peculiar drift ridges similar to those already described in Junius. These ridges are 30 to 50
feet high, and generally have very steep declivities upon all sides except the s. One of the longest
of these, in the w. part of the town, extends nearly two-thirds of the distance from the s. line to the
n. Its summit is nearly level; and the road which is located upon it appears as though built upon
an artificial embankment. The soil is clay and muck in the
e. and a gravelly loam in the w.
Tyre City, (Tyre p. o.,) near the center, contains 2 churches and 20 dwellings. CrsiJSO is
a p. o. on the
n. line. The first settlement was made hy Ezekiel Crane, from N. J., who came in

1794.5 The first church (Bap.) was formed in 1805. Elder Don Ralph was the first preacher:6

VARICK —was formed from Romulus, Feb. 6,1830. It extends from Seneca to Cayuga Lake,
across the center of the co. Its surface is slightly inclined toward the n. The slopes of the ridges are

years. The work was evidently of great antiquity,—the timber
on the inside being of the same size and apparent age of that in
the surrounding forest. Upon the bank and in the ditch large
oak trees—tbe growth of centuries—were standing. In the
embankment were several openings a few feet in width, which
were once probably used for gates or entrances. In making an
excavation for a cellar, on the e. side, 6 skeletons were found at
the depth of about 2 feet. This was in 1857. Several had been
found previously; and, though all tbe softer parts of tlie bones
had long since disappeared, the teeth and a few of tbe larger
hones still remained. Inside of the embankment may still he
found pieces of a coarse kind of pottery, ornamental pipes,
DeWitt Clinton visited this place in 1810; and his theory is
that this was one of a number of similar works of defense found
occupying the most commanding positions in Western NewYork,
and in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi, erected by a race
more civilized than the Indians, and that they preceded the
atter in the occupation of this country: their origin and end
ire alike a mystery; their annals defy the ken of human re¬
search, and their history will remain a sealed book perhaps for¬
ever. Tbe Indians were never able to give any account of this
fortification, as it was older than their traditions.

1 Named from the fails in the river, the Indian name, “Sha-
se-ounse,” signifying rolling water.

2 Downs & Co.’s manufacturing establishment, commenced in
1840, has a capital, Including real estate and machinery, of about
$200,000. They are largely engaged in the manufacture of pumps
and a great variety of other articles, use annually 3,800 tons of
iron, 1,500 tons of coal, and employ 230 hands. Their yearly
sales amount to about $400,000. They also manufacture Goffe’s
Patent Knitting Machine, and are largety engaged in the manu¬
facture of hose, turning out 800 pairs per day; 70 persons are
employed in this department. The Island Works of Siisby,
Mynderse & Co., commenced in 1848, is engaged in the manu¬
facture of steam fire engines, portable steam engines, and a
variety of other machinery. It employs 1-50 persons, and turns
out work to the amount of $200,000 per year. Cowing & Co.’s
works commenced about 1840. They are engaged in tho manu¬
facture of fire engines, pumps, and various other articles,—
employ 140 men, aud turn out work yearly to the amount of
$125,000. The Phoenix Woolen Mills gives employment to 90
persons, and manufactures goods to the amount of $150,000 per
annum. Besides these, there are in the place several flouring
mills, having in the aggregate 32 runs of stone, 2 distilleries, a
brewery, 2 planing mills, 5 founderies and machine shops, a
scythe and fork factory, a woolen factory, and several minor
manufactories. About 50 tons of ipon are used daily in the
several manufactories
.—American Reveille, Seneca Falls, 1859.

8 Mr. Smith was the first white settler upon the Military
Tract. Mr. Van Clief was a Revolutionary soldier, having been
in tbe battles of White Plains, with Washington at Valley Forge
and with Sullivan in his campaign against the Indians. He
settled on the river, and engaged in piloting boats pver the
rapids until the locks were built in 1815. Among the other

early settlers were James Bennett, Col. John Harris, and-

Parker. The first child born was a daughter of Lawrence Van

Clief, Nov. 29, 1790; the first marriage, that of  Fly and

Pamela Parkhurst, in 1796; and the first death, that of Mrs.

Job Smith, in 1792. The first school was taught by -

Leonard, in 1797. Lawrence Van Clief kept the first inn, in
1794; and Col. Wilhelmus Mynderse kept the first store, in
1795, and built the first saw- and grist mill, about tho same
time. In 1794, Robert Trout, Nicholas Gouverneur, Stephen N.
Bajard, and Elkanah Watson, under the title of the Bayard
Company, bought of the State 100 acres of land on the N. side
of the river, embracing the greater part of the water-power upon
that side. In 179S they purchased 250 acres on the s. side, and
in 1809, 650 acres more on the same side, the two purchases
embracing all the water-power upon that side of the river. In
1816 they bought 450 acres more on the n. side, completing the
purchase of the water-power. In 1795 the company sold a one-
fifth interest in their purchase to Col. Mynderse, and constituted
him their agent. In 1795 the “Upper Red Mills” were erected
under his direction; aud in 1807 the “Lower Red Mills” were
erected. The Co. refused to sell their land, neglected to improve
the immense water-power that they owned, and in 1825 broke
down, and the property was sold for about one-fifth of its cost.
In 1829-30 the manufacturing interests of tho place began to
increase. About that time a paper mill was erected by Chauncey
Marshall, G. V. Sackett, and Ansel Bascom; a cotton factory, by
Judge Sackett; a machine shop, by McClary
& Halliday; and a
clock factory, hy Marshall
& Adams. Until the locks wore built,
in 1815, the most important business of the place was that of
transporting goods and boats around the rapids. The “ dress
reform” movement was commenced in this town by. Mrs. Amelia
Bloomer, who adopted the dress known as the Bloomer Dress in

4 The census reports 7 churches in town; Bap., M. E., Wes.
Meth., Prot. B., Presb., Ref. Prot. D., and R. C.

6 Asher Halsey, from N. J., came in 1798. Among the other
early settlers were Stephen Crane, Peter and Ezra Degarmo,
Robert Gould, Thos. Susson, Lewis Winans, and Thos. W. Rose-
velt. The first child born was Danl. Crane; the first marriage,
that of James Cook and Betsey Woodworth; and the first death,
that of Ezekiel Crane. Nancy Osman taught the first school,
in 1804. Stephen Crane kept the first inn, in 1809; Nicholas
Traver built the first sawmill, in 1807, and Noah Davis the first
gristmill, in 1817.

® There are 4 churches in town; Disciples, Bap., M.E., and
Ref. Prot. D.


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