Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 620
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and sulphur springs in Campbell, Jasper, and Urbana. The soil in general is composed of detritus
of the adjacent rocks, and is better adapted to grazing than tillage. Upon the intervales along the
larger streams the soil is a fertile alluviuth. The extensive flats upon the Chemung are among
the finest agricultural lands in the State. Agriculture forms the chief occupation of the people.
Grain is largely produced on the alluvial lands, and stock is extensively raised on the uplands.
Stock and wool growing and dairying are the principal branches of agriculture pursued. Lumber¬
ing is still extensively carried on,—though it is gradually decreasing. The manufactures are prin¬
cipally confined to lumber, articles of wood, and the heavier and coarser products necessary to an
agricultural region.

The co. is divided into the northern and southern Jury Districts, the co. buildings being respect¬
ively situated at Bath and Corning.1 The courthouse at Bath is a commodious brick building,
erected in 1828.2 The jail is built of wood and closely surrounded by other buildings. The cells
for prisoners are in the basement, and are not provided with any means of ventilation. Its arrange¬
ments show a culpable neglect and an entire disregard of the general sentiments of the co. and of
the age. The co. clerk’s office is permanently located at Bath. The courthouse at Corning is a
fine brick edifice, erected in 1853-54 at a cost of $14,000. The jail at Corning was erected at the
same time. The courts are held alternately at Bath and Corning. The co. poorhouse is located
upon a farm of 214 acres about 2 mi. n.e. of Bath Village.2 The average number of inmates is 75;
and they are supported at an average weekly cost of $1.00 each. The farm yields a revenue of
about $2,000. No instruction is afforded; but the children of proper age are bound out.

The New York So Erie R. R. enters the co. from Chemung and extends along the valleys of the
Chemung, Tioga, and Canisteo Rivers to Hornellsville, and the Canacadea to the w. border of the
co. It passes through Corning, Erwin, Addison, Rathbone, Cameron, Canisteo, and Hornellsville.3
The Buffalo, N. Y. & E. R. R. extends
n. w. from Corning up the Conhocton Valley, through
Erwin, Campbell, Bath, Avoca, Cohocton, and Wayland, to the n. border of the co. This road in¬
tersects the Genesee Valley R. R. at Avon, the N. Y. Central at Batavia, the Buffalo & New York
City at Attica, and the N. Y. & Erie at Corning. The Hornellsville Division of the Buffalo, New
York & Erie R. R. extends
n. w. up the valley of the Canisteo from Hornellsville, passing through
that town and the s. w. corner of Dansville. The Blossburg & Corning R. R. extends from Corn¬
ing, through Erwin and Bindley, s. along the Tioga Valley to the Blossburg coal region. Crooked
Lake is navigated by steam and canal boats, and forms a link in the chain of the internal water
communication of the State. It is united with the Erie Canal at Montezuma by Crooked Lake
Canal, Seneca Lake, and the Cayuga and Seneca Canals. The Chemung Canal navigable feeder
extends from Corning
e. to Horseheads, in Chemung co. Considerable lumber is floated down the
rivers and finds a market at Philadelphia and Baltimore. These various works of internal im¬
provement afford ample facilities for the transportation of goods and passengers, and bring the
farm products of the co. into close proximity to the Eastern markets.

Seven newspapers are published in the co.4

The Farmers’ Gazette was commenced at Bath in 1816 by David

The Steuben Messenger was started at Bath, April 17, 1828, by
David Rumsey, and was published by him, garni. M.
Eddie, Wm. P. Agnel, and Chas. Adams successively
until 1834, when its name was changed to

The Constitutionalist, and its publication was continued success¬
ively by R. L. Underhill, Whitmore & Van Valken-
burgh, and Dowe & Richards, and by the last named
firm as

The Steuben Democrat, until 1844. The paper was then sus¬
pended. In 1848 it was renewed by L. J. Beach, and in
1849 it was transferred to Geo. H. Bidewell, by whom
the publication was continued until 1852.

The Steuben Whig was published at Bath during the political
campaign of 1828, by William M. Swain.

Tbe Steuben Courier was established at Bath in 1843
by Hull & Whittemore. It is now published by H. H.

The Temperance Gem was published at Bath in 1854, by Jenny
and Caroline Rumsey.

The Addison Eecord was published in Addison by Isaac D. Booth
from 1840 to 1842, and in 1849 by Dryden
& Peck.

The Addison Advocate was published by II. D. Dyer in 1848-49.

The Voice of the Nation was commenced at Addison by R. Den¬
ton. in 1852. In 1855 the paper passed to Anthony L.
Underhill, by whom it was published until 1856, when
it was removed to Bath and its name changed to

The Steuben American, and its publication continued until Mav,

The Canisteo Express was published at Addison in 1850 by T.


Upon the organization of the co., in 1796, the co. buildings
were located at Bath. A wood courthouse, one and a half
stories high, with two wings, was erected the same year. It
was removed in 182S and the present brick courthouse erected.
About the time of the erection of the first courthouse, a jail was
built of hewn logs, which was superseded by the erection of the
present jail in 1815. By an act of the Legislature, passed July

19,.1853, the co. was divided into two jury districts, and the co.
buildings for the southern district were located at Corning.


This establishment consisted of 3 buildings,—one of brick
and two of wood,—containing altogether 31 rooms. In Sept.
1859, the two frame buildings were burned, and 6 persons, in¬
mates of the establishment, perished in the flames.


This road was opened to Corning, Jan. 1, 1850, and to Hor¬
nellsville, Sept. 3 of the same year.


The Bath Gazette and Gen'esee Advertiser, the first paper

published in Western New York, was established at
Bath by Wm. Kersey and James Eddie in 1796, and
was continued several years. In 6 months from its
first issue its circulation had reached 1000 copies.

The Steuben and Allegany Patriot was started at Bath in 1815
by Benj. Smead, and was continued until 1822. It was
then changed to
The Farmers’ Advocate and Steuben Advertiser. In 1849 it passed
into the hands of William C. Rhoades, and in 1S57 iuto
those of B. S. Donahe, by whom it is now published

The Steuben Farmers’ Advocate.


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