662 ULSTER COUNTY.
Rondout, and Walkill Creeks and their tributaries. Besides the manorial grant of Fox Hall,1 the
English made township grants of Kingston, New Paltz, Marbletown, Rochester, Hurley, Shawan¬
gunk, and Marlborough. During the Revolution the frontier settlements were exposed to Indian
hostilities, and'before the close of the war were all destroyed or abandoned. The river towns were
taken by the British in 1777, and most of them were pillaged and burned. The Provincial Con¬
gress and State Legislature held several sessions at Kingston during the war and soon after. The
people were nearly all ardent patriots; and there were probably fewer tories in this co. than in any
other section of the State. Since the Revolution the co. has steadily progressed in wealth and
population. The completion of the Delaware & Hudson Canal was a marked era in the history
of the industry of the co.; and the commencement of the cement manufacture and stone quarrying
have greatly added to its permanent prosperity.
DENHVIjVG2—was formed from Shandaken, March 6, 1849. A part of Hardenburgh was
taken off in 1859. It lies in the n. w. part of the co., upon the border of Sullivan. Its surface is
a broken and mountainous upland. A spur of the Catskill Mts. extends through tho town, with a
mean elevation of 1,500 to 2,000 ft. Its streams are head branches of Rondout Creek and Never¬
sink River. The valleys are narrow ravines bordered by steep and rocky hillsides. The soil upon
the uplands is a gravelly loam, and in the valleys a sandy loam. The settlements are chiefly confined
to the valleys. Denning’ is a p. o. near the center. Dewittsville is a hamlet near the s. line.
This town, though large, has the least population of any town in the eo. Its chief wealth consists in its
heavy growth of hemlock and hard wood. Settlements were made at a comparatively recent period.3
ESOPITS—was formed from “ KingstonApril 5,1811. A part was set off to Kingston, and a
part of Hurley was annexed, in 1818, and a part of New Paltz was annexed April 12, 1842. It
lies upon the Hudson, and is the central town upon the e. border of the co. Its surface is rolling
in the e. and moderately hilly in the w. A range of hills extends n. and s. through near the center
of the town, the highest peak being 1,632 ft. above tide. Huzzys Hill, s. of Rondout, is 1,000 ft. bigh.
Wall Kil forms the w. and n. boundaries, and Swarte Kil and Black Creek flow through tbe s. part.4
The soil is a light, clay loam. Fruit growing is becoming an important branch of business. Ce¬
ment is largely manufactured, and an extensive commerce is carried on by means of the river and
Delaware & Hudson Canal.5 Port Ewen, (p.v.,) upontthe Hudson, s. of the mouth of Ron¬
dout Creek, is a village built up by the Penn. Coal Co, A large part of the coal brought forward
by the canal is here shipped upon barges for the Northern market. Pop. 1,300.® ArnoMtoil,
(p.v.,) upon Walkill Creek, in the s. part of the town, contains a church, woolen factory, cotton
factory, and 150 inhabitants. South Hondout, upon Rondout Creek, in the n. part, contains
an extensive cement and lime factory, a lager beer brewery, a brickyard, several boatyards, and
568 inhabitants. Dashvllle, upon Walkill Creek, in the s. part, contains a cement factory and
20 houses. Sleigiatsburghj upon the Hudson, at the mouth of Rondout Creek, contains an
extensive shipyard and 40 houses. Elimores Corners, (Esopus p. o.,) upon the Hudson, con¬
tains a church and 40 houses. Amesville (p. o.) and Atkarton are hamlets. Freerville,
in the sr. part, contains a gristmill and 20 houses. Settlements were made by the Dutch, soon
after their first occupation of the co.7 The first church (Ref. Prot. D.) of which there is any record
was formed in 1751; Rev. G. W. Mancius was the first preacher.8
GARDINER9—was formed from Rochester, New Paltz, and Shawangunk, April 2, 1853. It
is an interior town, lying s. of the center of the co. The surface is rolling in the e. and hilly in the
forcement of 40 men, under Ensign Myssen, arrived, and re¬
lieved the fort. Capt. Krygier, with a cannon and a force of 210
men, pursued the Indians to their forts and destroyed their
grain. In Sept. another expedition surprised an Indian fort, 36
mi. s. w. of Wiltwyck, killed the chief and 20 others, and re¬
stored 22 captives. The Indians were effectually broken and
scattered, and late in the fall they sued for peace and restored
all the remaining prisoners except 3.
1 Thomas Chambers, the original proprietor of this patent,
endeavored by will to entail it in his family; but it passed to
strangers before the Revolution.
2 Named in honor of Wm. H. Denning, former proprietor of a
large part of the town.
s The first sawmill was built in 1827, and the first tannery in
1850, at Dewittsville, by De Witt & Reynolds.
* “Sopus,” as known by the Dutch, included both Kingston
and the country s. of the Rondout. Their descendants still de¬
signate Kingston as “Sbpus,” and the corporate town above
named as “Klein Sopus,” or Little Sopus. The word is of Indian
origin. The Esopus Indians—who lived in this region when
first known to the whites—were of the Algonquin stock, and
were allied to the Mohegan and the other river tribes.
6 Along the bluffs that overlook the Hudson are several fine
country residences. Two lighthouses are built in the river op¬
posite this town.
6 Named from John Ewen, President of the Penn. Coal Com¬
pany. The village was laid out in 1851; nearly all of the in¬
habitants are more or less interested in the coal trade.
7 Johannes Louw was born in 1681; Baltus Terpening and
Tryntje Van Vliet were married in 1682. These, so far as is
known, were the first birth and marriage in town. Wm. Hin¬
man taught a school, at the Hook, in 1763. A mill was built
on Black Creek prior to 1800. A cotton factory was built at
Dashville in 1828, and the one now at Arnoldton in 1830; the
former is standing idle.
8 There are 6 churches in to wn; 3 Ref. Prot. D., M. E., Prot. E-.
8 Named in honor of Addison Gardiner, formerly Lieut. Gov.