between Soldiers Point and Green Island, at Greenore
Point, and Greenore Pier.
Carllnghow, eccl. dist. (St John) and hamlet with
ry. sta., Batley par., S. div. West-Riding Yorkshire,
pop. 3840. The hamlet is 34 miles NW. of Dewsbury.
Carlingwark, seat and small loch, near Castle
Douglas, S. Kirkcudbrightshire; many antiquities—
bronze utensils, canoes, &c.—have been found in the
loch, which is studded with six islets, one of them a
crannoge, or lake-dwelling.
Carlin How, hamlet with ry. sta., 4 miles SE. of
Saltburn, North-Riding Yorkshire ; P.O.
Carlins Cairn, mountain (2650 ft.), NW. Kirkcud-
brightshire, 3 miles SE. of head of Loch Doon.
Carlin Skerry, or Barrel of Butter, insular rock,
1£ mile SE. of Orphir church, Pomona isl., S. Orkney.
Carlin Tootli, a summit of the Cheviots (1801 ft.),
SE. Roxburghshire, 114 miles SW. of Jedburgh and
1 mile from the English border.
Carlisle, city, pari, and mun. bor., and co. town of
Cumberland, on river Eden, 60 miles W. of Newcastle,
98 S. of Edinburgh, 145 SE. of Glasgow, and 299 NW.
of London by rail, 1570 ac., pop. 35,884; 4 Banks, 3
newspapers. Market-days, Wednesday and Saturday.
Situated near the border and on the main route of traffic
between England and Scotland, Carlisle has been closely
associated with many important events in the history
of the two countries. It was a Roman station (I/ugu-
vallum) on the great wall of Severus, and the seat
(Caerleol) of the old British kings of Cumbria; was
destroyed by the Danes in 875; rebuilt and fortified by
William II. (Rufus) in 1092, the walls having 3 gates ;
held from 1135 to 1153 by David of Scotland, who died
j here; was subsequently in the hands of the English,
j its possession being repeatedly contested by the Scots;
and was occupied by Prince Charles Edward Stuart in
1745 on his invasion of England. C. is the see of a
bishop. The cathedral, famed for its E. window, was
founded by William Rufus and completed by Henry I.
The old castle, which was garrisoned till quite recently,
has a situation commanding a fine view of the Yale of
the Eden. C. is a great ry. centre. The sta. is the
terminus of no fewer than 8 lines. The mfrs. consist of
cottons, woollens, linens, iron, leather, and hats. In
the Eden there is good salmon fishing. Carlisle is 20
miles by rail SW. of Silloth; a dock was constructed
there in 1855, and Silloth has gradually superseded Port
Carlisle, which is no longer used as a harbour. (For
j shipping statistics, see Appendix.) The bor. returns 1
member to Parliament,
i Carlisle, Old, ham., Cumberland, 2 m. S. of Wigton.
Carlisles Quarter, or Bigges, township, Long Horsley
; par., Northumb., 6m. NW. of Morpeth, 2925ac., pop. 261.
Carl Lofts. See Karl Lofts.
Carlonan Linn, fine waterfall on river Aray, Argyll-
shire, 14 mile N. of Inveraray.
Carlops, vil., Linton par., NW. Peeblesshire, on
river North Esk, 14 miles SW. of Edinburgh; P.O. ;
has coal mining and limestone quarrying. A little
j NW. is Carlops Hill, alt. 1490 ft.
I Carlow.—inland co. of Leinster province, and, with
the exception of Louth, the smallest co. in Ireland; is
| surrounded by cos. Kildare, Wicklow, Wexford, Kil-
I kenny, and Queens co. ; greatest length, N. and S., 33
miles; greatest breadth, E. and W., 20 miles; average
breadth, 10 miles; area, 221,344 ac. (498 water), or a
little over 1 per cent, of the total area of Ireland; pop.
46,568, 885 per cent, of whom are Roman Catholics,
108 Protestant Episcopalians, 0'2 Presbyterians, and
0'3 Methodists. Nearly the whole surface is flat or
gently undulating. The Comer Hills (1047 ft.) occupy
a small part of the NW., while the Blackstairs Moun-
tains (2409 ft.) and Mount Leinster (2610 ft.) rise on
the SE. boundary. The rivers are the Barrow with
its affluent the Burren, and the Slaney with its affluent
the Derreen. Limestone is abundant, and marble is
quarried. The soil is generally very rich, andwelladapted
for pasture or tillage. (For agricultural statistics, see
Appendix.) The co. comprises 7 bars.—Carlow, Forth,
Idrone (East and West), Rathvilly, St Mullins (Lower
and Upper); 35 pars., and parts of 12 other pars.; and
the towns of Carlow (the greater part of) and Bag-
enalstown. It returns 1 member to Parliament.—2.
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