Perwiclt Bay, on S. coast of Isle of Man, 1 mile
SW. of Port St Mary.
Peterborough, parl. and mun. bor. and city, partly
in Huntingdonshire, but chiefly in Northamptonshire,
on river Nen, at NW. boundary of Cambridgeshire, 43
miles NE. of Northampton and 76 N. of London by
rail—mun. bor., 1818 ac., pop. 21,228; parl. bor., 6588
ac., pop. 22,394; 4 Banks, 2 newspapers. Market-day,
Saturday. Peterborough was called Medehamstede by
the Saxons until 970, and had its rise in the founding
of a monastery (656), destroyed by the Danes in 870,
and afterwards rebuilt. Upon its destruction by fire in
1116 the present cathedral was commenced, but was not
completed till early in the 16th century. The cathedral
is a noble edifice, its west front being unsurpassed by any
other in the kingdom. A thorough restoration of the
building was commenced in 1884. Among other build-
ings in the town may be mentioned the town hall, corn
exchange, and county court offices. The educational
institutions include a training college for church school-
masters, a grammar school, and middle class school.
Peterborough is an important railway centre, being con-
nected with the Great Northern Railway, and branches
of the Great Western, London and North-Western, and
Midland Railways. It is the centre of a great agricul-
tural district, and its markets for corn and fat stock,
and fairs for cattle, horses, sheep, &c., are of consider-
able importance. Trade is carried on in malt, coal, and
timber. Agricultural implements are manufactured.
The bor. was incorporated in 1874. It returns 1 member
to Parliament; it returned 2 members until 1885.
Peterborough Liberty, Northamptonshire, 49,903
ac., pop. 10,474; is identical with Nassaburgh hundred.
Peterchurch, par. and vil. with ry. sta., Hereford-
shire—par., 5089 ac., pop. 639; vil., in Golden Yale,
on river Dore, 9 miles NAA7. of Pontrilas sta. and 11 W.
of Hereford; P.O.
Peterculter, par., SE. Aberdeenshire, on river Dee,
10,547 ac., pop. 1908; P.O., T.o.; the church is near
Culter ry. sta., 74 miles SW. of Aberdeen.
Peterhead, parl. and police burgh, seaport town, and
par., E. Aberdeenshire, on a small peninsula on N. side
of Peterhead Bay, 44J; miles NE. of Aberdeen by rail—
par., 9170 ac., pop. 14,257; parl. and police burgh, pop.
10,922; town, pop. (including Buchanhaven) 10,953;
P.O.,T.O., 4Banks,2 newspapers. Market-day, Friday.
Peterhead was made a burgh of barony in 1593, but at
this date the only part of the town existing was the
fishing vil. of Keith-Inch, which stands on the extremity
of the peninsula. Keith-Inch has now been insulated by
the canal which connects the 2 harbours on either side
of the isthmus. There are now 3 basins, hewn out of the
solid rock, covering an area of 214 ac>> aild 2 graving
docks. (For shipping statistics, see Appendix.) Peter-
head is the centre of one of the 26 herring fishery districts
of Scotland, and during the season of the herring fishing
the pop. of the town is increased by from 3000 to 4000.
Immense quantities of herrings are exported, chiefly to
Baltic ports. A number of vessels are annually employed
in the Greenland seal and whale fishing, an industry
which has been carried on from this port since 1788,
but has had great fluctuations. Peterhead is the most
easterly town in Scotland, and owing to its prominent
situation and its position as regards the great fishing
industry of which it is the centre, it has been selected
by Parliament for a national harbour of refuge. Granite
is extensively quarried in the neighbourhood. Peterhead
is one of the Elgin Burghs, which return 1 member to Parl.
Peterley House, seat of Lord Dormer, 54 miles NAY.
of Amersham, Bucks.
Peters Green, hamlet, Kimpton par., Herts, 5 miles
SE. of Luton.
Petersfleld, market town, par., and township with
ry. sta., Hants, 20 miles NE. of Portsmouth—par., 1820
ac., pop. 2294; township, 237 ac., pop. 1646; P.O., T.o.,
2 Banks. Market-day, Wednesday. Petersfleld is an
ancient town, with claim to be ranked as a prescrip-
tive incorporation chartered by King John. The
chief feature of the town is its Norman church of the
12th century. There is an endowed school or college.
Fairs for cattle, sheep, and horses are held here in July
and October, and there is a sheep fair in December.
Petersfleld returned 1 member to Parliament until 1885.
Gazetteer of the British Isles, Statistical and Topographical, by John Bartholomew, F.R.G.S.
Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, 1887. Public domain image from Gedcomindex.com
Click on the image to get a large bitmap suitable for printing (45 MB)