Sheerness, seaport, dockyard, and garrison town,
Minster in Sheppey par., Kent, in NW. of Isle of
Sheppey, on river Medway, at its confluence with the
Thames, 47 miles E. of London by rail, pop. 14,286;
P.O., T.O., 1 Bank, 2 newspapers. Market-day, Satur-
day. Sheerness was captured by De Ruyter in 1667,
and was shortly afterwards fortified; its present forti-
fications are of modern erection and immense strength.
The harbour is safe and commodious, with deep water
close alongside the quays at low tide. The dockyard
was commenced in 1814 ; it covers 60 ac., employs be-
tween 1500 and 2000 men, and is principally used for
repairs. The barracks, naval and military, accom-
modate about 2000 seamen and as many soldiers.
Sheerness is coming into favour as a summer resort; it
has spacious esplanades, a fine beach, and excellent
facilities for bathing and boating.
Sheet, township and vil., in par. and 1 mile NE. of
Petersfield, Hants, 1583 ac., pop. 648; P.O.
Sheffield, pari, and mun. bor., manufacturing town,
par., and township, S. div. AVest-Riding Yorkshire,
on river Don, 157 miles NAY. of London by rail, 42½
SE. of Manchester, and 53 SW. of York — town-
ship, 3028 ac., pop. 91,806; bor. and par., 19,651 ac.,
pop. 284,508 ; 6 newspapers. Market-days, Tuesday
and Saturday. Sheffield has long been famous for its
cutlery. It has also manufactures of almost every
description, of iron, steel, and brass ; and in connection
with these it has numerous extensive iron and brass
foundries, grinding, tilting, rolling, and slitting mills,
&c. The branches of manufacture include steel, mostly
made from Swedish iron; armour-plates for ships of
war; rails, wheels, and all other castings for fixed or
rolling stock; stoves, grates, fenders ; plated goods ;
Britannia-metal goods ; and optical instruments, in-
cluding spectacles. Sheffield is picturesquely situated
in an amphitheatre of wooded hills, traversed by the
river Don, which here receives the Sheaf, Rivelin,
Loxley, and Porter. It has several fine public build-
ings, and in the older parts of the town great street
improvements have in recent years been made by the
corporation. Among the educational and literary
institutions is the Firth College, erected in 1879, in
connection with the movement for the extension of
university education. There are three public parks—
Norfolk Park, AVeston Park, and Firth Park. Sheffield
is a very ancient place, supposed to have been originally
a Roman station, but bas few relics of antiquity. Its
castle, probably of 13th century, and for many years
the prison of Mary Queen of Scots, was demolished
by order of Parliament in 1648. A part of the magni-
ficent manor-house which was built in the time of
Henry VIII., and where Cardinal Wolsey rested several
days on his last journey, is still standing, and in 1873
was restored by the Duke of Norfolk, the lord of the
manor. The modern history of Sheffield is closely con-
nected with that of Trades Unions. It narrowly
escaped being burned by the Chartists in 1840, and was
the scene of a terrible calamity in 1864, caused by the
bursting of the Bradfield Reservoir. Sheffield had
already become noted for its cutlery in the time
of Chaucer, but for many centuries its progress as a
town was slow. It is only since the middle of the
18th century, or even later, that it has risen to be one
of the great manufacturing towns of the kingdom. It
was made a parliamentary borough in 1832, and a muni-
cipal borough in 1843. It returns 5 members to Parlia-
ment (5 divisions—viz., Attercliffe, Brightside, Central,
Hallam, and Ecclesall—1 member for each division); its
representation was increased from2to 5 membersin 1885.
Sheffield Lane, 2 miles from Ecclesfield sta., S. div.
West-Riding Yorkshire; P.O.
Sheffield Park, ry. sta., and seat of the Earl of
Sheffield, Sussex, 5 miles NW. of Uckfield and 10
miles N. of Lewes.
Sheffin, par., N. co. Kilkenny, 2 miles NAY. of Fresh-
ford, 2488 ac., pop. 280.
Shefford, market town and township with ry. sta.,
Campton par., in co. and 10 miles SE. of Bedford,
pop. 1070; P.O., T.O. Market-day, Friday. Shefford
has mfrs. of straw plait.
Shefford, East (or Little Shefford), par. and vil.,
Berks, 5 miles NE. of Hungerford, 1069 ac., pop. 115.
Gazetteer of the British Isles, Statistical and Topographical, by John Bartholomew, F.R.G.S.
Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, 1887. Public domain image from Gedcomindex.com
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