other Hindoo community for perspicuity and
good sense. The emperor of Birmah is a despot-
ic monarch, and like the sovereign of China ac-
knowledges no equal. The prevailing character-
istic of the Birman court is pride. There are no
hereditary dignities or employments in the gov-
ernment, for all honours and offices, on the demise
of the the possessor, revert to the crown. The
capital wins formerly Ummerapoora, but this city
is now deserted, and the old capital Ava rebuilt.
The chief seaport is Rangoon.
Birmingham, a large, inland, populous and im-
portant town of England, in Warwickshire, bor-
dering on the counties of Worcester and Stafford.
It is a place of great antiquity, and has long been
celebrated for its works in every kind of metal,
and the manufacture of hardware, fire-arms, cut-
lery, japanned wares, and trinkets. The era of
its pre-eminence however is comparatively recent,
its commencement may be dated subsequent to
the war of 1776xe2x80x941783 ; since when it has more
than doubled in extent and population. The
number of its inhabitants, including Aston, imme-
diately contiguous, in 1801 was 72.522, and in 1821
106,722, and the adjacent country, on the borders
of the counties of Stafford and Worcester, contains
from 80,000 to 100,000 persons more, chieflv occu-
pied in the manufacture of articles brought to Bir-
mingham, for sale and distribution. The Stafford-
shire border abounds in iron and coal of the finest
quality, which contributes essentially to the excel-
lence and facility of most of its manufactures. The
town is considered peculiarly healthy, the chief
part being built along the ridge of a hill, having
a dry, sandy soil. The streets are regular, and
the buildings spacious. The church of St. Philip,
built in 1711, is a stately and fine edifiee, and
since 1800 twin other churches have been built,
both equally handsome. It has several sectarian
meeting houses, a well-endowind ' public school, a
handsome theatre, and an extensive suite of baths.
The perspective of the towin, especially on the
east side, is very imposing, and independent of
its innate importance, being nearly in the centre
of the kingdom, it is a place of vast intercourse.
It has-a canal basin at its highest level, from
Whence cuts diverge in every direction, and by
Wiiich the manufactures of the district are con-
veyed to all the ports of the kingdom, for distri-
bution over every part of the habitable globe. The
surrounding country is very fertile, and its mark-
et is in consequence exceedingly well supplied
with all the essentials of subsistence. Birming
ham k*. not an incorporated town, and, notwith-
standing its size and importance, has at present
no representation in parliament, though this evil
will probably be soon removed. It is governed
by two bailiffs and two constables, and there are
several resident magistrates who are chosen an-
nually from the most respectable part of the com-
munity. In 1643 Birmingham wins besieged and
taken by prince Rupert, and ordered to be burnt
to the ground, but, owing to some propitious cir-
cumstances, the conflagration did very little dam-
age. In 1665, or 1666, the town suffered severe-
ly from the plague. It began shortly after this
period to be considerably enlarged, though in 1700
it consisted of only 30 streets, whereas there are
now upwards of 300. It is 109 m. N. N. W. of
London, by way of Coventry or Warwick, from
each of which it is distant 18 m. and 116 by waj'
of Oxford, from which it is distant 58 m.
There are 3 towins in Pennsylvania by the
name of Birmingham.
m fact, that of the Hindoos, though they are not
votaries of Brama, but sectaries of Boodh. Their
jurisprudence is distinguished above that of any
Birnam, a hill of Scotland, in Perthshire, cele-
brated by Shakspeare in his Macbeth, 1580 feet
above the level of the sea. It was anciently a
forest and part of the Royal domain of Scotland.
Biron, a town of France, department of Dor-
dogne, 73 miles E. of Bordeaux.
Biron, a town in the department of Lower
Charente, 12 m S. E. of Saintes.
Birr, a parish and towin of Ireland, in Kings
county, near the borders of Tipperary. The towin
is sometimes called Parsons Towin : it is 34 m.
N. E. of Limerick, and 34 N. N. W. of Kilkenny.
Pop. in 1821,5,406; and the parish 2,972 more.
Birse, a town of Scotland, in Aberdeenshire,
seated on the Dee, 28 m. West of Aberdeen. Pop.
Birtley, a village in the county of Durham, Eng.
10 m. N. of Durham. Pop. in 1821, 1,386. There
is a village of the same name in Northumberland,
having a salt spring, at which great quantities of
salt were formerly made.
Birriesca, a towin of Spain, in Old Castile, 13
ip. N. of Burgos.
Birza, a towin of Poland, in Samogitia, 42 miles
S. E. of Mittau.
Bisaccia, a towin of Naples in Principato Ulte-
riore, 15 m. N. E. of Conza.
Biscara, a town of Algiers, in the province
of Constantina, and the chief pface of the dis-
trict of Zaab. It is an ancient town, 120 m. S. S.
W. of Constantina. Long. 5.12. W. lat. 33. 35. N.
Biscay, a maritime province on the N. coast of
Spain, extending from the Bidassoa, which di-
vides Spain from France in the long, of 1. 40. W.
to Santona, in-3. 18. W. lying on the shore of
of the Bay of Biscay, nearly in a straight line, in
the lat. of 43. 20. N. extending inland, in nearly
a pyramidal form, to Logrono, in Old Castile ; its
area being 248 square leagues, and in 1810 con-
tained a pop. of 233,450. It is bounded on the
W. by Asturias and Old Castile, and E. by the
Navarre. The river Ebro, which runs S. into the
Mediterranean, rises nearly in the centre of the
province, and afterwards forms part of its west-
ern boundary. It is divided into three parts viz.
Alava, S. containing 90 leagues of area, and 67,523
xe2x80xa2of the pop. chief towin Vittoria; Guipuscoa, E.
containing 52 leagues of area, and 104,491 of pop.
chief town St. Sebastian ; this, it will be per-
ceived, is the most populous part; Biscay Proper,
on the W. containing 106 leagues of area, and 111 ,-
436 of pop. chief towin Bilbao. The country is in