The inhabitants are in general tawny, with black
hair, but some are white and well made. They
are cleanly in their food, which often consists of
minced meat, and tea is the general drink. They
are not warlike, but use the how, lance, and sabre.
Samarcand is the capital.
Bokharia, Little. See Cashgar.
Boladola, one of the Society Islands, in the Pa-
cific Ocean, 4 leao-ues N. W. of Otaha. Long.
151. 52. W. lat. 16. 32. S.
Bolcheresk, a town of Kamtschatka, on the river
Bolchoireka, 22 miles from its mouth, in the sea
of Okotsk. Long. 156. 37. E. lat. 52. 54. N.
Bolingbroke, a town in Lincolnshire, Eng. It
was the birth-place of Henry IV. and has a
manufacture of earthen ware. It stands at the
source of a river which runs into the Witham,
29 m. E. of Lincoln, and 133 N. by E. of London.
Bolivia, a Republic of South America, formed
out of the province of Upper Peru in 1825. It is
bounded N. W. by Peru, N. E. and E. by Brazil.
S. by Buenos Ayres, and W.hy the Pacific Ocean
and Peru. The territory is mountainous, and
many of the streams which fall into the Amazon
and La Plata had their origin here. It contains
many silver mines, among other the celebrated
mine of Potosi. Its principal towns are Potosi,
Charcas, Oropesa, Oruro, La Paz, Cochabamba, and
La Plata or Chuquisaca which is the capital. The
population is estimated at something more than
a million. The government consists of a Presi-
dent, and a legislative body of three chambers.
The battle of Ayacucho which established the in-
dependence of this territory, was the last effort
made by the Spaniards to retain a footing in their
ancient dominion of South America. This battle
was fought Dec. 9, 1824. The Colombian army
under General Sucre, gained a complete victory
over the Spaniards, commanded by the Viceroy
La Serna. Sucre was made President of Bolivia,
but was afterwards assassinated.
Bolkenhaan, a town of Silesia, in the principali-
ty of Schweidnitz, a few miles west of the town
of Schweidnitz ; the inhabitants chiefly employed
in the linen, manufacture.
BoiJuncitz. or Polkwitz, a town of Silesia, 12 m.
S. of Glogau.
Bologna, a city of Italy, capital of the Bolognese,
and an archbishop's see. It is about 5 miles in
circumference, and contains 80,000 inhabitants.
It has long been distinguished as a school of sci-
ence; the university being one of the most an-
cient and celebrated in Europe. An academy of
arts and sciences was founded in 1712, and con-
tributed greatly to that fame which the City has
acquired. As a school of painting, it is immortal-
ized by the number of masters it has produced.
There arc here 169 churches, and these, as well
as the numerous mansions of the nobles, are most
munificently furnished with their best produc
tions. Nor have the exertions of art been con
fined to the sphere of painting; the city exhibits
some of the finest monuments of architecture,
such as the palace of Capraria, the marble foun-
tain in the Piazza-del-Gigante, and in fact, almost
every building of any note. The academy of arts
and sciences is a building of great magnificence,
and the public theatre is one of the largest and
most beautiful in Italy. The church of St. Petro-
nius is the largest in Bologna, but is more remark-
able for its pavement, where Cassini drew his
meridian line, 180 ft. long. The trade of Bologna
is very considerable, being situated in a fertile
country, and having an easy conveyance of its
produce by a canal to the Po. The exuberance
of the adjacent country enables the inhabitants to
furnish all Europe with the greatest delicacies in
confectionary, distilled waters, essences, &c. oil,
wine, flax, hemp, and silk, also furnish abundant
sources of trade and employment. The Reno,
which passes by the city, turns no less than 400
mills for silk-works. It is situated at the foot of
the Apennines, 22 m. S. E. of Modena, and 175 N.
W. of Rome. Long. 11. 21. E. lat. 44. 30. N. It
was taken possession of by the French in 175)6, but
restored to the states of Rome at the general peace.
Bolognese, a province of Italy, bounded on the
north by the Ferrarese, west by Modena, south
by Tuscany, and east by Romagna. It is watered
by many small rivers, and produces all sorts of
grain and fruit, particularly rich muscadine grapes
Some miles before the entrance into Bologna, the
country seems one continued garden. The vine-
yards are not divided by hedges, but by rows of
elms and mulberry-trees; the vines hanging in
festoons, from one tree to another. There are
also mines of alum and iron. Bologna is the cap-
ital. There are about 300 other towns, contain-
ing a population of about 200,000.
district of Bactriana, the native country of the
two-humped camel. The one-humped camel, or
dromedary, is a much more common animal.
Bulsena, a town of Italy, in the patrimony of
St. Peter, on a lake of its name, 13 m. N. N. W.
Bolsover, a town in Derbyshire, Eng Tf has
a spacious castle on the brow of a hill: aim is
noted for the manufacture of tobacco pipes. It is
6 m. E. of Chesterfield, and 145 N IV. W. <>i
London. Pop. in 1821, 1,245.
Bolsioeart, a town of Holland, in Friesland, near
the Zuvder Zee, 10 m. N. of Sloten. Near this
town, which is about two miles in extent was
formerly an abbey of the Cistertians, wlww tne
Munster Anabaptists took refuge in 1534 and
where William, count of Holland, was buried in
the 14th century.
Bolton-le-Moors, a large and populous town ir
Lancashire, Eng., consisting of two townships,
Great and Little Bolton. It is so called from its
situation amidst several extensive moors, and also
to distinguish it from another town in the north
part of the county, called Bolton-le-Sands. It is
11 miles N. AV. of Manchester, on the mail-coach
road to Preston and Glasgow, and, next to Man-
chester, is one of the most considerable stations
of the cotton manufacture, the branches more par-
ticularly pursued being those of muslins, dimities
and counterpanes. The canal to Manchester,
from which there is a branch to Bury, has added
materially to the prosperity of the place ; and the
new railway to Leigh, by affording facilities for an
additional supply of coal, has reduced the price
of that indispensable fuel. Besides the parish
church, here are two other episcopal churches
of recent erection, a Roman Catholic chapel, and