Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 110
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BOR    110    BOR

The countries on the coast are inhabited by a mix-
-m-e of Malays, Javanese, and Macassars. The
aborigines of the island, however, live in the in-
terior, and are called Biadjoos, Biayos, or Dijak-
kese, &c., who are represented as the most un-
couth and unsocial of the human race. Indeed it
seems to be here where natnre has united the
chain of animated creation, and placed the orang
outang as the connecting link between the articu-
lating, modulating, and inventing, and , he instinc-
tive ; or, in other words, between the biped and
the quadruped race of animals. On one side of
the orang outang, which seems to be a native of
the soil of Borneo, are apes, monkeys, bears,
goats, deer, horses, buffaloes and other horned
cattle, tigers, and the elephant; whilst on the
other side is a class of beings with apparently no
other claim to the character of man but that of
the power of articulation; and yet, amidst this
unsocial and unappreciating race of beings, na-
ture seems to have bestowed in lavish profusion
all her most delectable gifts ; with iron, tin, and
various other metals for purposes of utility; gold,
diamonds, and various other precious gems, for or-
nament, abound. It is here that the salangane, a spe-
cies of swallow, constructs its edible nest, which is
exchanged to gratify the luxurious palates of the
Chinese, at a rate double its weight of silver. In
the vegetable kingdom, in addition to rice and
maize for substantial subsistence, the sensations
of taste and smell are here to be gratified in the
highest possible degree. Cassia, cinnamon, frank-
incense, and myrrh, are indigenous productions
of the country. The
laurus camphoratus yields
an endless abundance of its fragrant and inflam-
mable substance ; whilst agaric, musk, aloes, and
various other substances and plants, are dispersed
over the country in endless profusion to aid the
domestic and social economy of man, and to serve
as alteratives in case of accident or disease. On
the other hand, the pernicious and poisonous
class of plants and reptiles are also common, and
the natives appear equally adept at applying them
in revenge against their enemies, as in the appli-
cation of medicines to avoid their consequences.
Thus, whilst the soil of Borneo appears suscepti-
ble by social arrangements and due cultivation to
sustain in a high degree of comfort and enjoy-
ment, a fourth of the whole population of the
globe, the total number of inhabitants is suppos-
ed not to exceed 3,000,000, divided into numerous
petty sovereignties. With the exception, how-
ever, of the coast, very little is known as to the
extent and condition of the population. The
English East India Company formed some settle-
ments upon the coast towards the close of the 17th
century ; but, in 17U6, the Dutch, in the prime
of their valour, drove the English entirely from
the country, and for more than a century were the
only European nation that maintained any direct
intercourse with the island. ' Their grovelling
policy has ever been, and still continues to be, to
preclude the world from all knowledge of the po-
sition, people, condition, and resources of the
countries with which they trade, as far as it is
possible for them to do so. During the war, sub-
sequently to the peace of Amiens in 1802, when
in their turn the Dutch were driven from all their
positions in Asia, the English again established
themselves on the coast of Borneo, and were
making progress in the arts of cultivation and
social economy, when, by treaty in 1816, the
Dutch were re-instated in their possessions, and
Borneo again exposed to their confined and ex-
clusive line of policy. As far as our knowledge
of the country does extend, whilst the coast on
all sides is low and swampy, the interior seems
much intersected by mountains ; a river called
the Banjar has its source in the centre of the
country, about two degrees north of the equator,
and runs south into the sea of Java. There are two
or three rivers running from E. to W. falling into
the sea on the west side, but the north and east
coasts appear deficient in good navigable rivers
for internal communication by water. There are,
however, several fine harbours and roadsteads
round the coast; the principal is Bandermassing,
at the mouth of the Banjar ; Sambar at the south-
west point; Sambas on the west coast; Borneo
at the north-west: and Passir at the south-east.

Borneo*s the principal city, and capital of a
kingdom of the same name at the north part of
the above island, is situate up a river about 10 m.
from the sea, in the lat. of 4. 55. N. and 114. 15.
E. long. Like most or all the other towns on the
coast, the houses are built on piles driven into the
swamp, inundated at high winter, and the trading
transactions, which are here very considerable
with the Chinese and other eastern nations, are
carried on in boats and wherries.

Bornheim, a to win in the electorate of Cologne,
about 15 m. W. by N. of Bonn. Pop. about 1,100.
xe2x80x94Also, a town of the Netherlands, about 10 m.
N. E. of Dendermonde.

Bornholm, an island of Denmark, iust within
the Baltic, of an oval km, auoui ** mnes in cir-
cumference, and nearly surrounded by rocks. The
soil is stony, but fertue, witn excellent pasture ;
and there are mines of coal, ana auarries of mar-
ble. It lies 10 in. S. E. oi the somnern extremity
of Sweden. The chief town is Koune, on the
wrest side : the north end is in iat. 55. 18. N. and

14. 49. E. long.

Bomos. a towin of the province of Seville, about

15. m. N. E. of Cadiz. Pop. about 3,000.

Bornou. an extensive empire in the interior of

North Africa, having Cassina or Kashna on the W.
and Nubia on the E. It consists of a number of
oases, or fertile spots, interspersed with arid
winstes. The climate is said to be characterized
by excessive, though not by uniform, heat. Two
seasons, one commencing soon after the middle of
April, the other at the same period in October,
divide the year. The first is introduced by violent
winds from the south-east and south, with intense
heat, a deluge of sultry rain, and such tempests
of thunder and lightning as destroy multitudes of
the cattle, and many ofthe people. At the com-
mencement of the second season, the ardent heat
subsides ; the air becomes soft and mild, and the
wTeather perfectly serene. Maize, rice, tlie horse-
bean, cotton, hemp, and indigo, are cultivated;
and there are figs, grapes, apricots, pomegranates,
lemons, limes, and melons. The most valuable
tree is called redeynah, in form and height like
an olive, the leaf resembling that ot a lemon, and
bearing a nut, the kernel and shell of which arc in
great estimation; the first as a fruit, the last on
account of the oil it produces Horses, asses,
mules, dogs, horned cattle goats, sheep, and
camels (the flesh of which is much esteemed) are
the common animals Bees are so numerous, that
the wax is often thrown auiny as an article of no
value. The game consists of partridges, wild
ducks, and ostriches, the flesh of which is prized
above every other. The other animals are the
lion, leopard, civet cat, wolf, fox, elephant, buffa-
lo, antelope, and the camelopard or giraffe, one of


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