Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 137
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La Plata towards its entrance into the sea. On
the east bank of the Uruguay there are numerous
settlements founded by the Jesuits. The south
part of this province is also divided by a conven-
tional line from Cordova, and south by the Rio
Negro, which separates it from Patagonia, and is
intersected from north-west to south-east, between
the lats. of 38. and 40. by the Colorado River, and
in the lat. of 36. by the Saladillo, which falls into
the La Plata. This part of the province is very
little known, but is celebrated as containing the
chief town and seat of government of the eight
united provinces.

Buenos Ayres, city of, is seated on the south
bank of the La Plata, about 180 miles from its
mouth, in the lat. of 34. 35. S. and 58. 24. of W.
long, opposite to where the Uruguay forms its
junction with the Parana. This city is justly es-
teemed as the finest country and as containing
the most active and intelligent population of all
South America. It was founded by Mendoza, in
1535, but afterwards abandoned; and in 1544,
another colony of the Spaniards came here, who
left it also; but it was rebuilt in 1582, and inhab-
ited by Spaniards ''and the native Americans.
It was, however, but little known to the world
until the commencement of the last century, up to
which period the intercourse of the country had
been restrained by a rigorous monopoly, when in
1748 the annual fleet ol the monopolists sailed for
the last time to Cadiz, the intercourse being
thrown open tor the whole of Spain. In 1774, the
freedyn of its intercourse was extended to the
greater part of the ports of the other Spanish
governments in America; and in 177c, when the
provinces of Buenos Ayres, which had previously
been under the government of Peru, were consti-
tuded a separate viceroyalty, and the city of
Buenos Ayres made the seat of the viceroy, it grad-
ually increased in extent, population, and import-
ance, during the remainder of the last century ;
about which period the imperial French govern-
ment under Napoleon sent emissaries for the pur-
pose of rendering it subservient to the views and
policy of France, which tended materially to re-
tard its commerce and career, on which alone the
prosperity of the city depended. To counteract
this influence, the English, inxc2xab1806, sent an expe-
dition from the Cape of Good Hope against
Buenos Ayres, which they took by surprise in the
month of May of that year, hut the whole force
were compelled to surrender at discretion, after
a few weeks, to a body a militia under the com-
mand of General Liniers a partizan of the French
government. In June of the following year, suc-
cessive reinforcements having arrived from Eng-
land, a renewed attack was made upon the city
with a force of 10,000 men under the command of
General Whitelocke, but the inhabitants,animated
by Liniers to the most determined resistance, and
aided by the militia, converted every house into
a fortress, from which they assailed the English
troops at all points with such disastrous effect, as
to compel the whole force to surrender prisoners-
of-war. From this period, up to July, 1816, the
city became the theatre of internal dissensions,
when a declaration of independence was agreed
upon, and it has since then remained compara-
tively tranquil, and been progressively recover-
ing from the disasters of the preceding fifteen or
twenty years. The buildings of Buenos Ayres
are stately and uniform, and the streets regu-
lar. Among the public buildings are a stately
cathedral, and two or three churches, town hall,
several convents, and other similiar institutions.
The public edifices are all built of stone of a
whitish colour, and produce an imposing effect
Its commercial intercourse now extends to all
parts of the world, and its export productions of
hides and tallow, in addition to the silver and gold
from the mines of Potosi, &c. enable it to com
mand an abundant supply of all the manufac-
tured productions of Europe and Asia, as well as
of every other commodity, from every quarter of
the globe. The population, which at the com-
mencement of the present century was estimated
at about 40,000, in 1825, was supposed to amount
to 70,000.

Buffalo, p.t. Erie Co. N. Y. on Lake Erie, near
its outlet. This is a port of entry with a good
harbour, furnished at the entrance with a light-
house. It is the great emporium of the lake com-
merce and the point at which the great canal from
Albany joins the waters of the lake. The town
occupies a pleasant spot on a gentle acclivity, and
consists principally of one long street with many
handsome and commodious buildings. It is a ve-
ry flourishing place and increases fast from year
to year. The harbour is frequented by great num-
bers of lake craft and steamboats. Pop. 8,653
There are 9 other towns called Buffalo, in the U.
S. viz. 6 in Pa. and one in Ohio, Va. and Missouri

Bug, a river of Poland, rising near Leopol or
Limberg, running north, dividing Austrian Gal-
licia from Russian Poland, to Brzese, (
which see.)
It then takes a westerly course, between Gallicia
and Prussian Poland, falling into the Vistula a few
miles below Warsaw.

Bugges Bay. See Boni.

Bugia, or Bujein, a seaport of Algiers, in the
province of Constantina. at the mouth of the Ma-
jor, on a bay of the Mediterranean. It has a
strong castle, but Sir Edward Sprague destroyed
several Algerine men of war under its walls in
1671. The harbour is safer and more capacious
than that of Algiers, but its entrance is equally
dangerous. The principal trade is in instruments
of agriculture, made of iron, obtained from moun-
tains near the town. It is 90 miles E. of Algiers.
Long. 5. 28. E. lat. 36. 45). N.

Bugie, a town of Egypt, situate on the west
shore of the Red Sea, almost oppo-ite to Ziden,
the port town of Mecca, and about 110 m. W. of
it. Long. 36. 6. E. lat. 22.15. N.

Builth, or Bualt,a town of Wales, in Brecknock
shire. Here was an ancient castle, whose keep,
its last remains, was burnt down in J690. In this
neighbourhood the Welsh made their last stand
for independence, and were defeated by Edward
I. in 1283. Builth has a manufacture of stockings.
It is seated on the Wye, over which is a bridge
into Radnorshire, 12 m. N. of Brecknock, and 173
W. by N. of London. Pop. 946.

Buis, a town of France, in the department of
Drome, 40 m. E. of Orange, and 65 S. S. E. of

Buitrago, a fortified town of Spain, in New
Castile, on the frontier of Segovia, celebrated for
the wool collected in its environs. It is seated on
the Lozoya, 40 m. N. of Madrid.

Bukfmria Great. See Bokhara.

Bukharia Little. See Cashgur.

Bukowine, a district in the north-west part of
the province of Moldavia, bordering on Gallicia
comprising about 4,000 square miles, and 160,000
inhabitants of various nation*, among whom are
about 2,000 gypsies. It is nominally under the do
minion of Austria.

M 2

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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