Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 166
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CAR    166    CAR

county of Cumberland, Eng. is situate at the junc-
tion of three rivers, the Calder, Petterill, and
Eden, about 6 m. above the entrance of the united
streams into the Solway Frith, and 13 m. from
the S. W. frontier of Scotland. Carlisle has held
a distinguished rank among the cities of England,
in every period of British history, and is supposed
to have been first founded by Luil, a native Briton,
long before the irruption of the Romans into Eng-
land. The contiguity of Carlisle to Scotland, dur-
ing the less social habits and distinctiveness of in-
terest, of the people of that country, frequently ex-
posed it to their depredations; to avoid which,
the Romans, on their possessing themselves of
this part of England, erected a wall from Solway
Frith to the German Ocean, which included Car-
lisle on one side, and Newcastle on the other,
within its southern limits. After the departure
of the Romans from England, Carlisle was sur-
rounded with a wall, by figfrid, king of Northum-
berland ; and after the Norman conquest it was
further protected by a citadel and castle, having
three gates, called the English, Irish, and Scot-
tish, with reference to their bearing on the side
of each respective country, built by William Ru-
fus. These defences, however, did not prevent it
from falling into the possession of the Scots, who
held it alternately with the English from the peri-
od of William Rufus, to that of Henry VII.; it
was constituted a bishop's see by Henry I., de-
stroyed by fire by the Scots, in the reign of Henry

III., and experienced the same disaster twice in
the following reign. In 1568 the castle was made
the prison house of the unfortunate Mary of Scot-
land ; in 1645 it surrendered, through famine, to
the parliamentary forces, and in 1745 fell into the
possession of the partizans of the Pretender, but
was immediately after retaken by the duke of
Cumberland, who demolished the gates and part
of the wall; and it has since that period enjoyed
an uninterrupted tranquillity. Since the com-
mencement of the present century, it has under-
gone great improvement: on the site of the cita-
del two commodious court-houses have been
erected, the county gaol rebuilt, a handsome
stone bridge built over the Eden, with other im-
provements, have contributed to render it one of
the most agreeable and interesting cities of Eng-
land. The castle is still kept in repair, and serves,
with other purposes, for a magazine, and an ar-
moury of about 10,000 stand of-arrns. The cathe-
dral is a stately and venerable edifice, partly of
Saxon and partly of Gothic architecture; there
are two other churches, as well as several secta-
rian meeting houses. The population, which in
L800 was 10,875, in 1810 was 12,531, and 1821,
15,476, exclusive of about 1,000 in an adjoining
out-parish. The cotton manufacture has long
been established here upon an extended scale,
whilst the architectural and.external appearances
of the city indicate great prosperity. The con-
veyance of its commodities of commer -e has been
facilitated by a canal to the Solway Frith, and it
is a point of union and interchange for the mails
to all parts of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Its corporation consists of a mayor, 12 aldermen,
&e. It returns two members to parliament, and
is 101 m. S. E. of Glasgow. 91 S. by E. of Edin-
burgh, and 303 N. N. AV. of London.

Carlisle, p.t. Middlesex Co. Mass., 20 m. N. W.
Boston. Pop. 566.

Carlisle, p.t. Scnoharie Co. N. Y., 40 m. W.
Albany. Pop. 1,748.

Carlisle, p.t. Cumberland Co. Pa., 18 m. S. W.

Harrisburg. It is a pleasant town regularly huilt,
the houses are generally of brick or limestone.
Here is a seminary called Dickinson College,
whicji was founded in 1783. It was suspended
for some years, but is now in operation. It has 4
instructers, 21 students, and libraries containing

7,000 volumes. There are two vacations in April
and September, of ten weeks. Commencement
is in September.

%* There are also townships called Carlisle in
Ken. and Indiana.

Carlisle Bay, on the south coast of Jamaica
west coast of fiarbadoes ; and island of Antigua

Carlo, an island off the coast of East Bothnia,
about 20 miles in circumference ; it is opposite to
the harbour of Leaborg.

Carlobago, a town of Morlachia, at the foot of
a craggy rock, near the channel that separates the
island of Pago from the continent. The commerce
consists chiefly of wood. Pop. about 12,000. It
is 46 m. S. E. of Buccari. Long. 15. 13. E. lat.

44. 55.N.

Carlo, St., a city in the interior of the new Co-
lombian province of Apure, situate on one of the
branches of the Apure River, about 85 m. S. S. W.
of Valencia. The inhabitants are principally de-
scendants of settlers from the Canary Isles, who
are more industrious and social than those from
Spain. Under the newly formed government of
Colombia, St. Carlo promises to become a flour-
ishing place, being situate in a very fertile
country, affording great inducements to agricul-
tural enterprise. Pop. in 1826, about 10,000; hut
since that period it has greatly increased.

*** There are several other towns in Old Spain,
and her late dominions in America, dedicated to
San Carlo, but they are all unimportant.

Carlo de Monterey, San, the principal settlement
of New California, on the west coast of N. Ame-
rica, in the lat. of 36. 36. N. and 121. 34. of W.
long. It is beautifully situated within a small
bay of the same name, first discovered by Cabril-
lo in 1542. It was afterwards visited by the
count de Monterey, from whom it received its
present name. The forests and mountains pn
elude much intercourse with the interior; no
does it appear that there is any considerable rivei
either north or soiith, for some distance, other
wise it would be an inviting spot for coloniza

Carlow, or Catherlogh, an interior county in the
S. E. part of Ireland; it is bounded on the west
by the Barrow River, which divides it from the
county of Kilkenny, and is intersected on the
east by the Slany River, which falls into Wex-
ford Haven ; it is one of the smallest counties of
Ireland, but exceedingly fertile; its butter, out
of the produce of which the absentee rentals and
other exactions are mainly discharged, is the most
esteemed of any in the country. The only towDS
besides Carlow, the capital, are Tullow and Hack-

Carlow, the chief town of the preceding counts,
is situate on the east bank of ihe Barrow river,
at the N. AV. extremity of the county, bordering
on Queen's county. In 1821 it contained 8,03o
inhabitants ; the ruins of a castle overhanging the
river, the ruins of a very* fine abbey, a convent,
and Roman Catholic college, are the principal
objects of interest in the town. It has also a re-
spectable market-house, county court-house, gaol
and cavalry harraeks, and manufactures some
woolen cloths. It is one of the 31 places in Ire-
land each of which returns one member to thp par

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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