reach of the violence of tlie'ocean, whicn in 1813
was so far accomplished, as to hold 50 sail of the
iine. having 50 feet depth of water. Other works of
corresponding magnitude have since been carried
on, and it now appears destined to become the chief
naval station of France, and to rival in extent and
magnificence every establishment of the kind
in the world. Its situation is very advantageous,
either for dispatching a fleet to any part of the
world, west or south ; or for commanding the chan-
nel between France and England. It is about 70
m. due south of the south side of the Isle of Wight,
and 10.0 AV. N. AV. of Par s, in N. lat. 49. 39. and
1. 37. AV. long.
Cherihon, a seaport on the north coast of the
Island of Java, about 150 m. N. of Batavia; it ex-
ports large quantities of coffee.
Cherokccs, an Indian tribe occupying an exten-
sive tract of country, between the Chatahoochee
and Tennessee rivers, at the S. extremity of the
Apalachian chain. The Cherokees were among the
bravest and noblest of the American race. This na-
tion has been lur.g distinguished, for being in ad-
vance of the other Indian tribes in the arts of
civilization. Some of their chieftains have been
really great men, fully sensible of the disadvan-
tages of their condition, and sagacious in devising
means to remedy them. Among these chieftains,
the late Charles Hicks, and John Ross, now at
the head of the nation, were pre-eminent. Under
their directing counsels, and aided by the policy
of the general government, they have outstrip-
ped all the other tribes in the march of improve-
Advantageously situated in the northwest of
Georgia, and extending themselves into Alabama
and Tennessee, they occupy a well watered and
healthy country, conveniently divided into hill
and dale. The northern part is quite mountain-
ous ; but the southern and western parts are com-
posed of extensive and fertile plains, covered with
the finest timber, and furnishing excellent pas-
turage. The winters are mild, and the climate
healthy. Large herds of cattle and horses are
owned by thematives.'and they are used for culti-
vating the earth. Numerous flocks of goats,
sheep, and swine, cover the hills. The valleys
and plains furnish the best soil, and produce In-
dian corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, oats, and pota-
toes. The natives carry on considerable trade
with the adjoining states, and some of them carry
their cotton down the Tennessee, and even down
the Mississippi, to New Orleans. Apple and
peach orchards are very common, and much at-
tention is paid to gardens in the nation. There
are many public roads in the nation, and houses
of entertainment kept by the natives.
Numerous and flourishing villages are to be
seen in every section of the country. Cotton and
woolen cloths, and blankets, are manufactured
here. Almost every family raises cotton for its
own consumption. Industry and commercial en-
terprise are extending themselves through' the
nation. Different mechanical trades are pursued
The population is rapidly increasing, and the fe-
male character is much respected. The religion
of the nation is Christianxe2x80x94that religion which,
wherever it reigns, whether in Europe, Asia,
Africa, or America, elevates its professors above
those of other religions.
Another proof is given by this people of their
capacity of self improvement, in the alphabet in-
vented by one of their native chieftains, called
Guess. I ke Cadmus, he has given to his people
the alphab of their language. It is composed ov
eighty-six characters, so well adapted to the pecu-
liar sounds of the Indian tongue, that Cherokees,
who had despaired of acquiring the requisite
knowledge by means of the schools, are soon en-
abled to read, and correspond with each other.
This invention is one of the great triumphs of the
aboriginal intellect. Like the Greeks and the
Latins, the Indians have now found a means of
perpetuating the productions of mind. They have
erected a barrier against the inroads of oblivion.
Henceforth their peculiar forms of expression,
their combinations of thought, and the sugges-
tions of their imaginations, will be preserved. An
empire of intellect is founded on a stable founda-
tion ; and when did such an empire experience a
decline, till it had first attained the climax of hu-
man grandeur P A printing press established in
the nation issues a newspaper, periodically im-
parting information, both of domestic and foreign
origin, throughout the tribe.
Their political constitution affords another
proof of their capacity of self government. Re-
publican in its character, its provisions are better
calculated, as expressed in the preamble, to es-
tablish justice, insure tranquillity, promote the
common welfare, and secure to ourselves and pos-
terity the blessings of liberty, than many of the
more einborate contrivances of their European
brethren. The government is representative in
its form, and is divided into executive, legislative,
and judicial departments. The trial by jury is
established; and the particular provisions of the
constitution, while they are calculated to accustom
the Cherokees to the principles of our system of
jurisprudence, are peculiarly well adapted to the
anomalous condition, in which the nation is placed.
The whole is well suited to secure to the tribe the
improvements already made, and to stimulate
them to further advances in civilization.
The sympathies of the public have within a
short time been strongly excited in their behalf
in consequence of a determination manifested by
the government of Georgia to expel them from
their territory. The Cherokees refuse to depart.
They avow themselves to be independent of the
state of Georgia and under the protection of the
Their numbers amount to about 14,000. Their
capital is New Echota, on the Coosa river, within
the limits of the territory claimed by Georgia.
Cheroniso, a town of European Turkey, on the
N. E. coast of the island of Negropont, 25 m. E.
Cheroy, a town of France, in the department
ofYonne, 10 m. W. of Sens.
Cherryjield, t. Washington Co. Me. Pop. 583.
Cherryton,. t. Northampton Co. Va. on the east-
Chcrryvalley, p.t. a flourishing town of New
York, in Otsego County, at the head of a creek
of its name, 18 m. S. of Canajoharie, and 55 AV.
by N. of Albany. Pop. 4,098.
Cherryville, villages in Pa., and Louisiana.
Cherso, an island in the Gulf of Venice, be-
tween the coasts of Istria and Croatia. On the
south it is separated from Osero by a very narrow
channel, and the two islands are united by a
bridge. The soil is stony ; but it abounds in cat-
tle, wine, oil, and honey. It has a town of the
same name, with a good harbour. Long. 14. 45.
E. lat. 45. 10. N. The two islands contain to-
gether a population of about 10,000, and wers
ceded to Austria by the treaty of Campo Fomio