Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 193
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cm    193    CHI

15. Concepcion

16. Aconcagua
71. Santa Rosa

7. Welipilla

8. Bancagua

9. Colchagua

10. Curico

11. Maule

12. Canquenes

13. Itata

14. Puchacay

18. Mapocho

19. Isla de Maule

20. Chilian

21. Rere

22. Isla de la Laxa.

Of these, the first five divisions extend from the
Pacific Ocean to the Andes; Nos. 6 to 15 are
bounded on the east by the seven remaining
provinces, which with Concepcion, are bounded
on the south by the Biobo River, in the lat. of 36.

50. S.; the more southern portion of the territory
to the lat. of 42. S., being occupied by the Arau-
c&ns, and the island of Chiloe projecting into the
Pacific Ocean forms the southern extremity of
the territory, which is separated from Peru on the
north, by the dreary Desert of Atacama. The
Andes, which flank the whole eastern boundary,
rises to an average altitude of 12,000 to 14,000
feet above the level of the sea, having in the
course of this range 14 volcanoes in a state of
constant eruption, and several others which emit
occasionally. All of them are, however, too re-
mote from the inhabited parts of the territory,
either to occasion inconvenience, or inspire ter-
ror, by the violence of their eruption. The sev-
eral provinces are mostly divided from each other
by ranges of hills, each intervening valley being
intersected by one or more streams
of water, con-
tributing alike
to the beauty and fertility of the
country, wliieh, as a whole, for diversity, beauty,
and grandeur of feature,
is unequalled in the
world. Although the
soil and climate of Chile
are alike favourable to the culture and breed
of all
the fruits, grain, and animals conducive to
well-being, comfort, and enjoyment of society, its
more distinguishing feature fs the abundance of
its mineral productions, in gold, silver, copper,
tin, and iron. Such, however, for nearly three
centuries, was the subduing and perverse policy
of the Spaniards, that with means to command
every comfort, the inhabitants of this fine and
fertile territory were kept in a state of barbarism,
and on the verge of want. The ties of Spanish
bondage, however, now appear broken, never to
be united. The first movement of resistance to
Spanish authority, which took place in 1809, for
some time, appeared likely to succeed without in-
terruption ; but in 1814, a Spanish force from
Peru subdued nearly the whole country, and held
it again in subjection until 1817, when a force, in
the cause of independence, under the command
of general San Martin, enifdred Chile from Buenos
Ayres, and turned again the tide of victory
against Spanish domination. On the 12th of
Febraarv. 1819, the Chilians formally renounced
all obligation to Spanish authority, and declared
themselves- independent; which the battle of
Maypa, in the following April, not only confirm-
to theao. but enabled them to extend their
arms, in pursuit of their oppressors, into Peru.
Tlie new government is, however, for the pres-
too wsHtabfe to justify any positive conclusion
as to the future destiny of the country. The
population, aseordmg to a census taken in 1812,
amounted to about 1.230,000, exclusive of some
scattered trihes of Indians. Santiago, or St. Jago
de Chile, (as
it is sometimes written) in the
province of Mapocho, in
the lat. of 33. 20. is the
chief city, to which Valparaiso, distant 100
miles west, is the seaport. The other seaports are
Copiapo, Coquimbo, Concepcion, and Valdivia.

The Chilians are gay and hospitable, and are
highly fond of bull fights, music, and dancing.
They sleep from noon till sunset, after which the
shops and streets are lighted up, and all the pub
lie places are thronged till midnight.

A traveller in Chile in 1820, has furnished us
with the following remarks :

The merchants and other principal inhabitants
reside in the houses built along the base of the
cliffs in Valparaiso, and along the streets of the
Almehdral. But the poorer people live chiefly in
the Quebradas, or ravines. This class of society
have been the least affected by the changes in the
political state of the country, and retain, as we
were informed, nearly the same manners and
habits as before ; a circumstance which gave them
a higher interest to us; and induced us frequent-
ly to rove ahout, in the cool hours of the evening,
amongst their ranchos, or cottages. We were
every where received with the utmost frankness,
and, as far as the simple means of the inhabitants
went, with hospitality. They were chiefly brick-
makers, day-labourers, and washerwomen, who
were always gratified by the interest we took in
their affairs, replying readily and cheerfully to
our inquiries. Their first anxiety was that we
should be seated, in order, to use their phrase,
that we might
feel ourselves in our own house.”
Their next wish was that we should taste some-
thing, no matter how little; some offering us
spirits, or milk and bread; others, who could
afford nothing else, presenting a citp of water.
Yet, however wretched the cottage, or poor the
fare, the deficiency was never made more appa-
rent by apologies: with untaught politeness, the
best they had was placed before us, graced with
a hearty welcome.

These ranchos, as well as the houses in the
town, are built of large flat bricks dried in the
sun; and thatched with broad palm leaves, the
ends of which, by overhanging the walls, afford
shade from the scorching sun, as well as shelter
from the rain. Each cottage is divided into two
rooms; one- for the beds, and the other as a dining
room; a portion of the mud floor in this apart-
ment is always raised seven or eight inches above
the level of the other parts, and being covered
with mats, serves as a couch for the siesta sleep-
ers after dinner.

In one cottage we found a young woman grind-
ing corn in a very primitive mill, which consisted
of two stones, one a large grooved block placed
on the ground, the other polished, and about
twice the size of her hand. The unground corn
appeared to be baked till it could be crumbled



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