Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 249
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supposed to have been ouilt by order of Alexan-
der of Macedon, as the portal of Persia from the
North. The town extends from the shore of the
Caspian to the foot of a lofty mountain, and is
surrounded by a strong wall, flanked with nume-
rous towers, and with a well organized garrison
might defy any assault. It surrendered to the
Russians in 1722, when it was defended by 230
pieces of ordnance ; the Russians held it till 1735,
since -when it has several times changed masters,
and since 1806, has again been occupied by the
Russians; the inhabitants of the district, however,
acknowledge no sovereignty but their own will,
and the town is now deemed but of little impor-
tance. It is inhabited by about 900 families, Per-
sians,Tartars, and Armenians; the harbour is near-
ly choked up. It is in the lat. of 42. 8. N. and 48.

10. of E. long.

Deptford, ph. Gloucester Co. N. J.

Derby, an interior county of England, extend-
ing about 56 miles from N. to S. and 20 in mean
breadth, the greater part of its W. side is bound-
ed by the river Dove, which divides it from Staf-
fordshire ; the N. W. corner is bounded by the
county of Chester, and the N. by the county of
York ; and the counties of Nottingham and Lei-
cester bound it on the E. and S. The noble
river Trent and the Trent and Mersev canal in-
tersect the S. end, whilst the Derwent falling into
the Trent, intersects the heart of the county
from N. to S. The N. AV. part of the county is
mountainous, several of the peaks rising to the
height of upwards of 1,700 feet, and Holme Moss,
the highest point, to 1,659 feet above the level
of the sea ; near the centre of the countv is a rich
vein of lead ore ; it also contains several veins of
iron; in the mountainous district of the N. W.
corner of the county, are several extensive cav-
erns, which attract numerous visitors, and pro-
duce a beautiful variety of spar and petrifactions,
which are extensively wrought into vases and
other ornaments (see
Peak.) It abounds also in
numerous mineral springs,
(see Buxton and Mat-
and parts of the county are esteemed as the
most beautifully picturesque of any in the king-
dom ; the south part of the county is rich in pas-
ture and yields a considerable surplus of cheese
and cattle, and other agricultural produce. The
county also contains several tan-yards, participates
partially in the cotton, silk,and hosiery manufac-
tures. and extensively in the manufacture of nails.
Besides the Trent and Mersey canal, already
mentioned. another canal extends from the S.
extremity the county into Warwickshire. Two
others, the Derby and Erewash, intersect the S.
E. part of the county; another extends from
Chesterfield in the N. E. into Yorkshire, and
another intersects the mountainous district of the
X. AV. r
unning through Cheshire into Lanca-
shire. The principal towns in Derbyshire, be-
sides those previously mentioned, are Derby, the
county town. Alfreton, Ashborne, Bakewell,
Chapel-in-ie-frith, Dronfield, Duffield, and Tides-

Derby, the chief town of the preceding county
is situate on the W. bank of the river Derwent,
about ten miles above its entrance into the Trent,
28 miles N. of Leicester. 15 AV. of Nottingham,
about 30 E. of Stafford, and 126 N. N. W. of
London, on the maiictMch road to Manchester,
from which it is distant 60 miles. Derby is a
place of considerable antiquity, and was created
a royal borough by Edward I. in 1305. It con-
sists of five parishes. The church of All Saints
is a stately and elegant structure, having a beau
tiful gothic tower 178 feet in height. About the
year 1735 an extensive silk mill wins erected here,
the model of which was sureptitiously obtained
from Italy ; it was for many years the only estab-
lishment of the kind in England, and is still one
of the most extensive ; and in 1750, a porcelain
manufacture was established which is now in
high repute for the elegance of its productions.
In 1803 a military depot was established here,
suitable for the arming and equipment of 15,000
men ; and in 1810 a county infirmary was erect-
ed on an extensive scale, and rendered very com-
plete in all its interior arrangements. Besides
the original silk mill, Derby has now 3 others,
and 2 for spinning of cotton on a tolerably exten-
sive scale, 4 paper mills, 5 tan yards, 14 malting
houses, and 2 public breweries, 5 establishments
for the manufacture of silk stuffs, and 6 for small
wares of cotton, &c., 5 for the manufacture of
hats, 11 for hosiery, 2 bleach grounds, 9 manu-
factures of shot, white lead, and painters colours,
3 soap houses, 5 foundries, 2 wintch manufacturing
establishments, and 7 for the working of spar and
petrifactions into chimney ornaments, with some
of almost every other occupation attendant on an
active and social state. This variety of occupa-
tion since the commencement of the present cen-
tury, has rendered Derby one of the most flourish-
ing’ towns in the kingdom; the population, which
in 1801 was only 10,332, in 1821 had increased to
17,423. The general aspect of the town is re-
spectable, and in its prinicipal part assumes a fea-
ture of importance; the county hall and other
county buildings are stately; it has a spacious as-
sembly room, and a literary and philosophical so-
ciety, a range of alms houses for clergymen’s
widows, 2 others for lay persons, and several dis-
senting places of worship. Derby was formerly
surrounded by a wall, and contained a castle and
3 monasteries, no vestiges of any one of which

Jiuw remain. The Pretender’s army from Scot-,
and entered the town in 1745, but withdrew after
a very short stay. Derby returns two members
to parliament, and holds 7 fairs annually. The
river Derw-ent is navigable from the Trent up to
Derby in a N. N. W. direction, but the town com-
municates with the Trent and Mersey canal by
a cut in a direction due S. and with the Erewash
canal, in a direction nearly due E. which affords
an easy conveyance to all the S. E. parts of the

Derby, West, a township 4 miles N. of Live-
pool, Lancashire, which in 1821 contained 6,304
(see Walton and Liverpool.)

Derby, a town of Connecticut, in New Haven
county, seated on the Housatonic, which is navi-
gable hence to the sea. * It is 14 miles N. W. of
New Haven. Pop. 2,253.

Derby, a town of Pennsylvania, in Dauphin
county. Here is a cave divided into several apart-
ments, and adorned with stalactites. It is situate
on the Swatara, two miles above its conflux with
the Susquehanna, and 10 S. E. of Harrisburg.

Derby, is also the name of a township in Orange
Co. Vermont, on the E. side of lake Memphre-
magog, and hounded on the N. by the conven-
tional line which divides the United States ter-
ritory from Lower Canada. Pop. 1,469.

Dereham, a town in Norfolk, Eng. The church
is a very ancient structure, with four chapels, and
a curious stone font. It is 16 miles AV. of Nor
wich,and 101 N. N. E. of London. Pop in 1821

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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