Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 274
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EDI    274    EGG

kings. The castle is at present employed as a
barrack, and can hold about 3,000 men. It was
once a place of great strength ; the rock on which
it is situated being near 200 feet above the plain
beneath, and in some places overhanging the base.
Palisades, a dry ditch surmounted by a draw.-
bridge, and twin batteries to protect the gate, form
the principal defences of the fortress ; the area of
the whole occupying about seven acres.

Of the religious edifices of Edinburgh, the
church of St. Giles is the principal and the most
ancient. Charles I. made it the cathedral of the
new diocese, and it was a collegiate church as
early as the year 1466. It is built in the form of
a cross, and occupies one entire side of the Par-
liament-square. The most remarkable circum-
stance connected with it is, that it is divided into
four parts, each of which is a distinct church. It
is here also that the General Assembly is held,
and that the affairs of the Scottish church are or-
dered by its ruling ministers. The part of the
building most admired is the elegant tower and
spire, which rise from the centre of the edifice to
the height of 161 feet, and are ornamented by
richly wrought arches. Of the other churches it
is only necessary to mention that of Trinity col-
lege, founded by Mary of Gueldres in 1462, a no-
ble Gothic structure ; and those of St. Andrew’s
and St. George, which are elegant buildings of
modern erection. Besides these, which belong
to the national church, there are six episcopal
chapels, of which St. Paul’s and St. John’s, rais-
ed within late years, are amongst the grandest of
modern structures : the former is after the mod-
el of King’s college chapel, Cambridge ; and the
latter is a parallelogram, the parts of which are
composed in richest Gothic style. A Roman
Catholic chapel built in 1814, is greatly admired
for a similar species of architecture ; and almost
every class of dissenters has its appropriate place
of worship.

The university was founded in the year 1582,
but at that period had^mly one professor : anoth-
er, however, was soon after appointed, and then
a third, till the number increased to twenty-seven,
the present establishment. The original building
belonging to the university was so ill adapted to
its increasing celebrity, that in 1789 it was part-
ly taken dowin, and a new structure commenced ;
but from want of funds the work was for many
years delayed, and was not till of late resumed,
and then on a diminished scale. The university
library contains more than 50,000 volumns; and
the number of students is, on an average, 2,000.
Next to this establishment we may mention the
high school, founded in the sixteenth century,
and consisting of a rector, four masters, and near
500 scholars.

The charitable institutions are numerous, and
some of them richly endowed. The hospital, es-
tablished by the celebrated jeweller of James VI.,
George Heriot, is a handsome Gothic edifice;
and under its venerable roof 180 boys are boarded
and educated with benevolent care. Watson’s
hospital is also on a similar plan ; and there are
others for the support of decayed tradesmen, their
wives, and daughters. Of the literary and scien-
tific institutions of Edinburgh, the Royal, Anti-
quarian, and Wernerian societies are deservedly
distinguished; and there is no other city in Europe
where the men of letters and scientific ability
hear so great a proportion to the number of the in-

No particular manufacture is carried on in this

city ; the working and trading classes being chief
ly supported by the production and sale of the
more general articles of domestic use. Edinburgh
sends one ' member to parliament. Distance N.
N. W. of London 396 miles. Lat. 55. 58. N.
' Long. 3. 12. W. Pop. in 1821,112,335. See

Edisto, a river in South Carolina, which after
a course of about 140 m. falls into the Atlantic
Ocean by two channels, about 40 m. S. of
Charleston. The island, formed by the diver-
gence of the stream, contains about 3,000 inhabi
itants, the greater part of whom are slaves.

Edmonton, a village of Middlesex, England,
6 m. N. of Shoreditch Church, London, on the
great high road to Edinburgh. It has nothing
but its thoroughfare to entitle it to notice. Pop.
in 1801, 5,093, and in 1821,7,900.

Edwards, a county on the E. frontier of the
state of Illinois, bounded by the great Wabash
river, 35 m. from S. to N. and about 30 in mean
breadth, the little Wabash intersects the W. side
of the county; and towards the S. part, between
the two rivers. Pop. 1,649. Albion is the capi-

Edwardsville, a village in Madison Co. Illinois
Also a township in Greenville Co. Upper Can-

Eecloo, a populous town of the Netherlands, 11
m. N. by W. of Ghent.

Effcrding, a town of Austria, with a castle,
seated near the S. bank of the Danube, 12 m. W.
of Lintz.

Effingham, a village in Surry, Eng. 12 m. N
E. of Guilford. It was once a much larger place,
and supposed to have contained 16 churches,
wells, cavities like cellars, having been frequently
found in the neighbouring fields and woods ; and
in the present church are some ancient stalls and

Effingham, a county in the state of Georgia,
bordering on the Savannah river, its area compri-
ses about 500 sq. m. Pop. 2,969. Willoughby is
the chief town.

Effingham, ph. Strafford Co. N. H. 67 m. fr.
Portsmouth. Pop. 1,911.

Egehi, a town and castle of Germany, in the
duchy of Magdeburg, on the river Bode, 16 m. S.
S. W. of Magdeburg.

Egenburg, a town of Austria, noted for good
wine, 13 m. S. W. ofZnain in Moravia.

Eger, a river in Germany, which rises in the
principality of Culmbach, running in an E. N. E.
direction through the circle of Saaz, and after a
course of about 120 miles falls into the Elbe, near

Eger, a fortified town at the western extremity
of Bohemia, in the circle of Saaz, with a castle and
college. It was taken by the French in 1742, but
they were forced to evacuate it the next year
through famine. Here are manufactures of lea
ther, hats, cloths, and stuffs ; and its mineral wa-
ters are famous. It is seated on the Eger, 90 m.
W. by N. of Prague. Long. 12. 27. E., lat. 50. 5.
N. Pop. about 8,000.

Egerseg Szala, a town of Lower Hungary, seat-
ed on the banks of the Szala, which falls into the
S. end of lake Balaton.

Egg, an island of Scotland, one of the Hebrides,
to the S. of Skye, 5 m. in length, and from 2 to 3
in breadth. It is partly flat, and partly hilly and
rocky, with some basaltic pillars. The low
grounds are fertile.

Egg Harbour River, Great and Little, the
former constituting the S., and the other the

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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