ionable classes their dress is showy, although the
fashions are generally copied from the French.
The manners of the English are formal, stiff, and
reserved, and there is no country where ranks and
conditions are fenced round with so many bar-
Of the early history of England, but little is
known prior to its becoming a province of the
Roman empire, during the first century of the
Christian era. The first invasion of England by
the Romans was under Julius Caesar in the
year 35, at which period the country was in-
habited by a very numerous but hardy and rude
race of people denominated Britons, living in
tribss and subject to an austere and rigorous
priesthood. About the year 86 the whole country,
after numerous conflicts, was subdued by the
Romans. During a period of nearly 400 years,
from the time of Agricola to the year 447,
when the Romans finally quitted the island, they
had effectually succeeded in reconciling the na-
tives to a dependence on their government, and
in diffusing a taste and desire to cultivate and
practice the arts of social life ; they had, however,
so implicitly yielded to Roman government and
protection, that, on being left to govern and pro-
tect themselves, they were unable to withstand
the rude and vigorous attacks of the Piots and
Scots, who poured into the country from the
north. The Romans, on being applied to by
the Britons, declining from inability to render
them assistance, the Britons invited the assistance
of the Saxons, a people who had acquired celeb-
rity for their valour in the north of Europe. In
the year 449 Hengist and Horsa, two Saxon
leaders, arrived with a force of 1,600 men, who
succeeded in speedily subduing the Scots and
Piets; bat perceiving the inefficiency of the
Britons, the Saxons obtained a succession of rein-
forcements, made allies of the Scots and Piets,
and turned their whole force to the subjugation
of England ; and, in the progress of time, the
country became divided into seven monarchies,
some one of which, however in its turn maintain-
ing an ascendancy over the rest, the ascendant
monarch being regarded as king of England.
The following is a fist of the seven monarchies:
with the dates of their foundation and extinction,
Kent.....founded in 454 extinct 823
South Saxons . . xe2x80x94
East Saxons . . xe2x80x94
Northumberland . xe2x80x94
East Angles . xe2x80x94
Mercia . . xe2x80x94
West Saxons . . xe2x80x94
which merged into an undivided sovereignty un-
der Egbert, the 17th king of the West Saxons,
in 828. In 860 the Saxon Dynasty in its turn
was assailed by the Danes, and, after repeated
conflicts and aggressions, Sweyn, a Dane, was
crowned king of England in 1013. The crown
reverted again to the Saxons in Edward, sur-
named the Confessor, in 1042; but on the 14th
of October, 106fa the destinies of England were
placed in the hands of William of Normandy,
surnamed the Conqueror, from the decisive victo-
ry he gained on that day, over Harold II., king
of England. From that period to the present time
the whole country has been under the rule of a
successive line of kings, except for 11 years, from
1649, to 1660, when it was under the protectorate
of Cromwell, during which time it was ruled by
the Parliament or the Protector, and was called
the commonwealth of England.
England, New. See New England.
English Town, p.v. Monmouth Co. N. Y.
English Turn, a bend in the river Mississippi,
18 m. below New Orleans.
Enkioping, a town of Sweden, in Upland, on
the N. side of Lake Maeler, 21 m. S, W. of
Ennis, a town in the parish of Drumcliff, Ire-
land, capital of the county of Clare. It is seated
near the head of a bay, on the N. side of the riv-
er Shannon. It is 19 m. N. N. W of Limerick,
and 113 S. S. W. of Dublin. Population of the
town (whichis sometimes called Clare), in 1821,
6,702, and the remainder of the parish 3,533 more.
It returns a member to the parliament of the
Enniscorthy, a borough of Ireland, in the coun-
ty of Wexford, with a manufacture of coarse
woolen cloth, and some iron winrks. It is situate
on the Slaney, close under Vinegar-hall, 10 m.
N. of Wexford, and 27 N. E. of Waterford.
Enniskillen, a borough of Ireland, capital of
the county of Fermanagh. It is seated on an
island in Lough Erne, where that lake is contract-
ed for about six miles to the width of an grdinary
river, and has a strong fort, it being a pass of
great importance between the N. ana S. of Ire-
land. In 1595 it made an obstinate defence
against the army of queen Elizabeth, and again
in 1680 against James II. It is 80 m. N. W. of
Dublin. Population, in 1821, 2,399, and of the
parish 10,000 more. It returns one member to
the parliament of the United Kingdom.
EnnisviUe, p.v. Huntingdon Co. Pa.
Eno, or Enos, a towin of European Turkey, in
Rumelia, and a Greek archbishops see ; seated
near a gulf of the Archipelago, at the influx of
the Marissa, 90 m. S. by AV. of Adrianople, and
145 AA7. S. AV. of Constantinople. Long. 28. 15.
E., lat. 40. 46. N.
Enosburgh, ph. Franklin Co. Vt. Pop. 1,560.
Ens, a town of Austria, on a river of the same
name, at its conflux with the Danube, 12 m. E.
S. E. ofLintz.
Ensene, a town of Egypt, on the E. side of the
Nile. Here are considerable ruins of the ancient
Antinoe. It is 120 m. S. of Cairo. Long. 30.
54. E., lat. 28. 5. N.
Ensisheim, a town of France, in the depart-
ment of Upper Rhine, on the river Ille, 10 m.
S. of Colmar.
Enskirken, a town in the duchy of Juliers, 15
m. S. W. of Cologne.
Enstorf, a town of the palatinate of Bavaria,
22 miles N. of Ratisbon.
Entlibuch, a town of Switzerland, in the canton
of Lucern, 14 m. AV. S. W. ofLucern.
Entre Douro e Minho, the most N. W. province
of Portugal, lying on the sea coast, between the
rivers Douro and Minho, and bounded on the E.
by Tralos Montes. It is 68 miles from N. to S.,
and 40 broad, and in 1810 contained a population
of 907,965. Braga, 30 miles N. N. E. of Oporto,
is the capital. It is watered by two other rivers,
falling into the Atlantic Ocean, viz. the Lima and
Cavado; the other principal towns are, Lagos,
Lapeda, and Moncao, on the S. bank of the Min-
ho, which divides the province from the Spanish
province of Galicia : Port de Lima, and A'iana,
near the mouth of the Lima, Barcellos, between