Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 299
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Finale, a sea-port of Genoa, with a strong cita-
del, two forts, and a castle. It was.the capital
of a marquisate, and annexed to the duchy of Mi-
lan in 1602, but sold to the Genoese in 1713. In
1746, it was taken by the king of Sardinia, and
restored in 1748. It is 30 m. S. W. of Genoa.
Long. 8. 25. E., lat. 44. 14. N. Pop. about


Finale, a town of Italy in the Modenese, on an
island formed by the river Panaro, 22 m. N. E.
of Modena.

Fineastle, p.v. a village of Bottetourt Co. Va.
190 m. N. W. of Richmond.

Finisterre, Cape, a cape of Spain, forming the
extreme N. W. point of that country, projecting
into the Atlantic Ocean, from the province of
Galicia. It was thought by the ancients, to have
no country beyond it, and therefore they gave it
this name which signifies the Land’s-end. Long.

9. 17. W., lat. 42. 54. N.

Finisterre, a maritime department of France,
which includes part of the late province of Bre-
tagne. It is the most westerly part of France,
and bounded on three sides by the sea; on the
N. it forms the boundary to the entrance of the
English channel. It is divided into five arron-
dissements, of which Quimper, Brest, Morlaix,
Chateaulin, and Quimperle, are the seats of the
prefects. The other principal towns are Lesne-
ven, Landerneau, and Carhaix. For pop. &c.

Finland, a country of the North of Europe, ex-
tending from the lat. of 60. to 66. 3*1. N.. and in
its extreme breadth from the long, of 21. to 31.

30. E. It is bounded on the S. by the gulf of
Finland, and W. by the gulf of Bothnia; N. by
Lapland, and E. by the Russian provinces of
Wilburg and Olonetz; it formerly belonged to
Sweden and was divided into two great parts, the
N. called E. Bothnia, (see
Bothnia,) and the S.
Finland Proper, which contains several conside-
rable towns, of which Abo is the chief and capi-
tal of the whole country, (see
Abo.) The other
towns are Nystadt, Raumo, and Biorneborg, on
the shore of the gulf of Bothnia, and Helsinfors,
Borgo and Louisa, on the shore of the,gulf of
Finland. There are also 4 or 5 considerable
towns in the interior. About one-third of the
area of Finland Proper is composed of lakes. The
contiguity of Finland to the maritime capital of
the Russian empire, had long rendered it an ob-
ject of jealousy to the Russians, and in 1808 they
overran it with so formidable a force as to com-
pel the Swedes to consent to a formal cession of
the whole country, and it now forms one of the
governments of the Russian empire. It is di-
vided into 13 districts, containing together in
1825, a wop. of 980,000, who contributed a reve-,
nue ofSJSO.OOO rubles, equal to about xc2xa3130,000.

The Fnns have been supposed to be nearly re-
lated to the Lapp3 but though they are equally
diminutive in stature, the fair hair’ either yellow,
flaxea, irabMt white, added to the brave and
warlike afcmcrir of the Finn, evidence him to be
of a different origin.

Tacitue describes the ancient Finns as a people
11 whose ferocity was extraordinary, and poverty
; ha rag heihs for their food, skins for
covering, and the ground for their couch : re-
ardless of man
and of gods,'’ continues he, “ they
ave attained
the very difficult condition of not
having a single
wish to form.''

The modern Finn is honest, laborious, and ca-
pable of enduring great hardship; but he hear3
the reproach of being sometimes obstinate and in-
flexible. The Lutheran form of Christianity
was introduced among the Finns by the Swedes;
and since the annexation of their country to Rus-
sia, no attempt has been made to change their
mode of religious worship.

Dr. Clarke describes the costume of the Finnish
peasants as very elegant. Among the men it
consists of a jacket, with pantaloons, buskins, and
a sash, worn as a girdle, round the loins. The
sash, though generally yellow, is sometimes red,
and sometimes v
ariegated with flowers. The
buskins are bound about the ankles with scarlet
garters, ending in a black tassel. The jacket and
pantaloons are generally white; though blue,
black, and grey, are also used. A few of the
men appear in long white coats bound with the
Don Cossack sash. The women wear a short
scarlet or striped vest, made as gaudy as possi-
ble, with large and loose sleeves of very white
linen, and white hoods or kerchiefs upon their
heads. The vests are often of silk or rich damask,
embroidered with large brocade flowers.

The Finns, like their neighbours, exhibit a scat
tered population, and a rude state of society. The
cottages consist of dismal huts, with walls made
of the round trunks of trees, barely stripped of
their bark, and rather resembling a casual pile of
timber, than a human dwelling. The interstices
are caulked with clay and moss; a few glazed
windows are occasionally seen; but their place
is more generally supplied by square open cran-
nies. “ In fact,” says Mr. James, from whom
this accouut is derived,
the felling of the timber
is the only part of the labour which a peasant
thinks it behoves him to calculate upon, when
about to erect his habitation.”

Of the Finns who inhabit the islands of the
Baltic, the last quoted writer thus speaks:xe2x80x94l! The
cottages of the islanders are rough-hewn log-
houses; and they are themselves a people appa-
rently of such simple manners and habits, as their
secluded situation and scanty number might lead
one to expect; each rustic householder is provi-
ded with the tools and implements of a dozen nec-
essary arts or professions ; performing for him-
self, with equal address, the duties of carpenter,
shoemaker, tailor, fisherman, miller, baker, &c.
Their corn mills are of simple form, and driven
by sails constructed of wooden planks ; and their
mill-stones are shaped like the querne, or old Cel-
tic machine for grinding with the hand. Luxu-
ries, such as ochre paint for their cabins, or coats
of woolen cloth, where sheepskins will suffice

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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