Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 319
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have a very long neck, which, together with their
head, has a disagreeable appearance, very much
resembling a large serpent. I have seen them
with necks between two and three feet long, and
when they saw anything that was new to them,
or met each other, they would raise their heads
as high as they could, their necks being nearly
vertical, and advance with their mouths wide
open, appearing to be the most spiteful of any
reptile whatever. Sometimes two of them would
come up to each other in that manner, so near as
almost to touch, and stand in that position for
two or three minutes, appearing so angry, that
their mouths, heads, and necks appeared to quiver
with passion, when, by the least touch of a stick
against theii necks or heads, they would shrink
back in an instant, and draw their necks, heads,
and legs into their shells. This is the only quick
motion I ever saw them perform. I was put in
the same kind of fear that is felt at the sight or
near approach of a snake, at the first one 1 saw,
which was very large. I was alone at the time,
and he stretched himself as high as he could,
opened his mouth, and advanced towards me.
His body was raised more than a foot from the
ground, his head turned forward in the manner
of a snake in the act of biting, and raised two
feet and a half above its body. I had a musket
in my hand at the time, and when he advanced
near enough to reach him with it, 1 held the muz-
zle out so that he hit his neck against it, at the
touch of which he dropt himself upon the ground,
and instantly secured all his limbs within his
shell. They are perfectly harmless, as much so
as any animal I know of, notwithstanding their
threatening appearance. They have no teeth,
and of course they cannot bite very hard. They
take their food into their mouths by the assistance
of the sharp edge of the upper and under jaw,
which shut together, one a little within the other,
so as to nip grass, or any flowers, berries, or
shrubbery, the only food they eat. >Those who
have seen the elephant, have seen the exact re-
semblance of the leg and foot of a terrapin. I
have thought that I could discover some faint re-
semblance to that animal in sagacity. They are
very prudent in taking care of themselves and
their eggs, and in the manner of securing them
in their nests; and I have observed on board my
own ship, as well as others, that they can easily
be taught to go to any place on the deck, which
may be wished for them to be constantly kept in.
Tne method to effect this is, by whipping them
with a small line when they are out of place, and
to take them up and carry them to the place as-
signed far them; which, being repeated a few
times, will bring them into the practice of going
Jiemselves, by being whipped when they are
out of their place. They can be taught to eat on
board a ship, as well as a sheep, or a goat; and
will live for a long time, if there is proper food
provided far them. This I always took care to
do, when in
a place where I could procure it.
The most suitable to take on board a ship, is
prickly pear-trees: the trunk of whibh is a soft,
pithy substance, cf a sweetish taste, and full of
juice. Sometimes I procured grass for them.
Either of these being strewed on the quarter-
deck, the pear-tree being cut fine, would imme-
diately entice them to c-nve from all parts of the
deck to it; and they would eat in their way, as
well as any domestic animal. I have known
.hem live several months without food ; but they
always, in that case, grow lighter, and their fat
diminishes, as common sense teaches, notwith
standing some writers have asserted to the con-
trary. Their flesh, without exception, is of as
sweet and pleasant a flavour as any that I ever
eat. It was common to take.Out of one of them,
ten or twelve pounds offat, when they were open-
ed, besides what was necessary to cook them with.
This was as yellow as our best butter, and of a
sweeter flavour than hog’s lard. They are the
slowest in their motions of any animal I ever saw,
except the sloth. They are remarkable for their
strength > one of them would bear a man’s weight
on his back and walk with him. I have seen
them at one or two other places only. One in-
stance was, those brought from Madagascar to
the Isle of France; but they were far inferior in
size, had longer legs, and were much more ugiv
in their looks, than those of the Galapagos

Galashiels, a town of Scotland, in Selkirkshire
with a manufacture of woolen cloth, known by
the name of Galashiels Gray. It is seated on
the Gala, near its conflux with the Tweed, 5
m. N. of Selkirk.

Galbally, a village of Ireland, in the county
of Limerick, 23 m. S. E. of Limerick. Pop

Galen, a township of Seneca Co. N. Y.

Galicia, a late province in the S. W. part of
Poland, lying between the lat. 43. and 51. N.
and 19. and 2G. of E. long. It is bounded cn
the S. in a direction W. by N. by the Carpathian
mountains, which divides it from Hungary ; the
W. end jets upon Silesia, the Vistula river forms
part of its northern, and the Bug part of its east-
ern boundary ; the S. E. extremity is divided by
the Bukowine district from Moldavia, and the
Dneister river intersects the S. E. part. This
territory was forcibly seized by the Austrians in
1772, and incorporated into the Austrian domin-
ions, under the appellation of the kingdom ,xc2xbbf
Galicia and Lodomiria. The mountainous parts
possess fine pasture ; the plains are mostly sandy
but abound in forests, and are fertile in corn.
The principal articles of traffic are cattle, hides,
wax, and honey ; the country also contains mines
of copper, lead, iron, and salt, of which the latter
are the most valuable. Its limits comprise up-
ward of 32,900 sq. m., the pop. about 3,750,000.
It is divided into East Galicia and West Galicia,
of which the capitals are Lemburg and Cracoy.

Galicia, a province of Spain, forming the N
W. extremity of the Peninsula, bounded on the
N. and W. by the Atlantic Ocean, on the E. by
Asturias and Leon, on the S. by the Portuguese
province of Tras-os-Montes, and on the S. W. by
the river Minho, which divides it from the Por-
tuguese province of Entre Douro e Minho. Its
extreme length from the mouth of the Minho
river in 41. 52., to Cape Ortegal, the exterme
northern limit of Spain in 42.46. N., is 133 statute
m., and its extreme width from the frontier of
Leon to Cape Finisterre, the extreme western
limit ofSpain in the lat. of 42. 56. N., and 9.17.
of W. long, is about 120 m.; but the mean length
and breadth does not much, if at all, exceed 100
m.: its area therefore comprises about 10,000 sq.
m.; the pop. in 1810 amounted to 1,142,630. It
is one of the most mountainous districts in Spain,
yielding abundance of fine timber, and various
minerals. The whole extent of its coast is in-
dented wnth fine bays and harbours. Ferrol. 25
m. S. S. W. of Cape Ortegal, is one of the prin
ciyal stations of the Spanish national marine

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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