the sovereigns of Germany had and still have an
absolute authority in their own dominions, and
can lay taxes, levy troops, and make alliances,
provided they do not prejudice the empire. They
determine all civil causes definitely, unless in
some particular cases in which an appeal may bo-
made. These appeals were to two courts, called
the Imperial Chamber, at Wetzlar; and the Aulic
Council, at Vienna.
The three principal religions are, the Roman
Catholic, the Lutheran, and the Calvinistic; but
Christians of all denominations are tolerated, and
there is a multitude of Jews in all the great towns.
Germany is watered by numerous rivers, the three
principal of which, are the Rhine, the Danube,
and the Elbe; the first of these rises in Switzer-
land, and forms the S. W. boundary of the em-
pire, dividing it from Switzerland and France ; it
afterwards intersects the N. W. part of Germany
and Holland, and falls into the Meuse, near Rot-
terdam. The Danube rises in Suabia, the S. W.
circle of the empire, and by itself and several
tributary streams of inferior note, intersects a
great portion of the southern part of Germany;
it afterwards runs through Hungary and Europe-
an Turkey, into the Black Sea. The Elbe rises
near the centre of the eastern frontier, and runs
ip a N. W. direction into the North Sea. The
Oder intersects all the N. E. part of Germany,
and falls into the Baltic Sea. The Weser, the
Ems, the Adige, the Drave and other small riv-
ers are navigable, and afford admirable means for
facilitating an interchange of productions from
one part of the country to the other; but the
Oder and the Elbe are the only two that are uni-
ted by art. The mountains of the south are rich
in every kind of metal and semi-metal. The for-
ests supply abundance of the finest timber, and
the vine, olive, and mulberry, only require com-
mon attention to yield fruit in abundance ; while
the plains of the north yield a surplus of grain
and cattle for exportation, and of wool and flax
to furnish materials for extensive manufactures,
especially of linens, which are exported in consid-
erable quantities to almost every part of Europe,
Africa, and America.
In 1806, the Germanic confederacy was dis-
solved by Napoleon, and several of the minor
states formed into a new confederacy under the
title of the confederation of the Rhine; while
Westphalia, Wurtemberg and Bavaria, were con-
stituted new and independent kingdoms; Prus-
sia and Austria retaining their respective heredi-
tary dominions ; but at the general pacification of
Europe, in 1815, the Rhenish confederacy was
dissolved, and that of Germany again re-establish-
ed, with some variations and modifications. In
1325 the confederacy consisted of 35 sovereign-
ties, exclusive of the four free towns of Ham-
burg, Bremen, Lubec, and Frankfort. No people
apply themselves more closely to their studies
than the Germans; and the Hebrew is no where
so generally learnt, or better understood. Print-
ing is most extensively encouraged ; every man
of letters is aa author: they multiply books with-
out number; thousands of esssays and dis-
putations are annually published, with which they
overstock the fairs of Frankfort and Leipzig ; for
no man can be a graduate in the university who
has not published one disputation at least. The
language of Germany is a dialect of the Teutonic,
which succeeded that called the Celtic. The
population is estimated at 30,000,000. Vienna is
the principal city
Germany, a township in Adams Co. and a vil
lage in Somerset Co. Pa.
Gcrona, a fortified town of Spain, in Catalonia,
and a bishops see ; seated on the- Ter, 20 m. from
its entrance into the Mediterranean, and 47 N.
E. of Barcelona.
Gerrardstofwn, p.v. Berkeley Co. Va.
Gerry, ph. Chatauque Co. N. Y. Pop. 1,110.
Gers, an interior department in the S. W. of
France : it is watered by numerous streams,' run
ning from S. to N. into the Garonne, the princi-
pal of them is the Gers, which gives name to the
department. It contains a strata of pit coal, and
has manufactures of wool, linen, and saltpetre;
its chief vegetable productions are flax, the vine,
and pears. It is divided into four other arron-
dissements; the chief towns of which are Condom,
Lectoure, Lombez, and Mirande.
Gersau, a town of Switzerland, on the lake of
Schweitz, at the foot of the Ragi, 12 m. S. W. of
Gertruydenburg, a fortified town of South Hol-
land, with a good harbour and salmon fishery on
a large lake, called Biesbosch. It has been often
taken, the last time by the French in 1793, but
soon recovered. It is 7 m. N. by E. of Breda.
Long. 4. 52. E., lat. 51. 42. N.
Gerumenha, or Jurumenha, a town of Portugal,
in Alemtejo, with a strong castle ; seated on a
hill, near the river Guadiana, 18 m. below
Gesecke, a town of Germany, in the duchy of
Westphalia, seated on the Weyck, 11 m. W. S.
W. of Paderborn.
Gessenay. See Sanen.
Gestricia, a province of Sweden; the S. part of
Nordland, between Daleearliaon the W., and the
gulf of Bothnia on the E. It is 100 m. long, and 60
broad, diversified by forests, rocks, hills, and
dales, lakes, and rivers ; and there are numerous
mines and forges. Gefle is the capital.
Gettysburg, a town of Pennsylvania, in York
Co. situate at the head of Rock creek, 30 m. W
by S. of York.
Gex, a town of France, in the department of
Ain, noted for excellent cheese; seated at the
foot of Mount St. Claude, between the Rhone,
the lake of Geneva, and Switzerland, 10 m. N. W.
of Geneva. It is the seat of a prefect.
Geyss, a town of the electorate of Hesse, in the
principality of Fulda, seated on the Ulster, 17 m.
N. E. of Fulda.
Gezan, or Gliezan, a sea-port of Arabia Felix,
which has a considerable trade in senna and
coffee ; seated on the Red Sea, 90 m. N. W. of
Loheia. Long. 43.15. E., lat. 16. 25. N.
Gczira, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Diarbek
on the island formed by the Tigris, 70 m. N. W.
of Monsuh Long. 40. 50. E., lat. 37. 16. N.
Gczula, a province of Morocco, which is very
productive, and contains mines of iron and cop-
per. The inhabitants are numerous, and consid- ;
ed as the most ancient people of Africa : they live
in tents, are so independent that they are rather I
the allies than the subjects of the emperor of ,
Ghana, or Gana, a city in Negroland, capital of
a country of the same name, governed by a sul-
tan. It stands on the S. side of a large lake, at
at its outlet, which separates the city into two
parts, and soon after joins the river Niger, which
is here called Neel il Abeed, or Nile of the Ne-
gros. It is 100 m. E. by S. of Cassina.
Ghauts, the name given to several groups and