Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 344
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GRE    344    GRE

ry, restored her conquests from this power, and
ner ally, Spain, and abandoned the demolition of
Dunkirk. France also gave up her conquests, and
the consequence of this treaty was the acknowl-
edgement of the independence of the United
States. The events worthy of note in the affairs
of England down to the subsequent rupture with
France are, abroad, the conquest of half the do-
minions of Tippoo Saib in India, and at home, the
progress of religious toleration, the extension of
the privileges of juries in c riminal cases to judge
not only of the fact, but of the law, and the propo-
sal for the abolition of the slave trade, brought for-
ward by the virtuous Wilberforce, adopted by the
commpns, and rejected by the lords.

But the principles which gave rise to the French
revolution were now proclaimed with enthusiasm
in the political societies of Great Britian, and the
parliament adopted the bill for the exclusion of for-
eigners, and prohibited the exportation of corn to
France. The latter complained of the violation
ofthe commercial treaty of 1787, but Great Britain
dismissed the French ambassador and organized
against that power in 1793 the first coalition, of
which she herself waj the soul, and which was
composed of nearly the whole of Europe. The
victories of the French broke up this alliance, and
rendered France more powerful than ever. Eng-
land stirred up a second coalition in 1799, but was
herself forced into a peace, and the treaty of
Amiens was signed in 1802. A new coalition arose
under her auspices in 1305, and new victories and
new aggrandizements on the side of the French at
the expense of their neighbors were the result. In
1807 the fourth English coalition was broken by
the treaty of Tilsit. In 1809 a fifth was formed,
and ended in the treaty of Vienna by a new ac-
quisition of territory for France. Finally after
a perseverance which exhibits in a striking view
the power of England, and the immense resources
within her reach, the sixth coalition, renewed
in 1813, terminated in the fall of the French em-
pire, the restoration of the house of Bourbon, and
the treaty of peace concluded at Paris in 1814.

The British constitution, is a piece of mosaic
work belonging to different epochs: it is the
great charter of Henry I, modified a century
later and forced upon the acceptance of king
John. It is the charter confirmed with great al-
terations by Henry III, and sanctioned by Ed-
ward I. Its completion is the Declaration of
of Rights in 1088. It possesses however, the ad-
vantage of not impeding the developement of
any social faculty, of securing every liberty, by
the unrestrained exercise ot that of the press, and
of exalting the character of the subject by placing
his life and property under the safeguard of the
laws. The king of England joins to the dignity
of supreme magistrate, that of head of the church.
The former gives him the right of making
war and peace, alliances and treaties, raising
troops, assembling, proroguing, adjourning, and
dissolving parlament, appointing all officers, civil
and military, and the chief Ecclesiastical digni-
taries. and pardoning or commuting the punish-
ment of criminals : the latter gives him power to
convoke national and provincial synods, who un-
der his approbation, established dogmas and dis-
cipline. The parliament enjoys the prerogative
of proposing laws, bat no law has any validity
till approved by the king. On the other hand the
will of the sovereign or his ministers, and the an-
nual demand for supplies cannot take the shape
of a law till under this form they have been sanc-
tioned oy the votes of both houses. The king
may increase not only the number of peers, but
even that of the commons, by authorizing a city
to return members to parliament. He arrives at
majority at the age of eighteen, and on his acces
sion to the throne must sanction all the laws
passed daring his minority. Females as well as
males possess a hereditary right to the crown.
The responsibility of the ministers, not an empty
phrase in England, secures the inviolability of
the monarch: the ministers are four in number,
and independant of one another : xe2x80x94the First Lord
of the Treasury, or prime minister, who has under
his direction the taxes, the custom house, the
stamp office and the post office ; xe2x80x94 the Secretary
of State for foreign affairs ;xe2x80x94the Home Secretary,
who has the direction of colonial affairs excepting
those of the East Indies,xe2x80x94 and the Secretary at
War whose authority exiends over the concerns
of India. A council is organized to examine
whatever relates to Indian affairs, and another
superintending the business of commerce and the
colonies, is composed of enlightened individuals
who combine among themselves the interests of
agriculture, industry and commerce, and study
unceasingly the wants and tastes of every people
for the purpose of making them in some way sub-
servient to British industry. The House of Com-
mons consists of 658 members, of whom 489 rep-
resent England, 24 the principality of Wfales, 45
Scotland, and 100 Ireland.

At the present moment Great Britain is ap-
proaching a fearful crisis. Her trade is embar-
rassed, her subjects disaffected, and her political
institutions threatened by the example of popular
revolt in the neighboring countries. The Whigs
have once more come into power, and a ministry
preside in the national councils whose avowed
and leading object is to effect an essential change
in the government. A struggle for life and death
has commenced between the popular and aristoc
radical bodies. The checks and balances which
political theorists have been accustomed to con-
sider as a part of the British constitution, have
begun to give distinct evidences of their conflict-
ing tendencies ; and the hostile operation of dis-
cordant elements seems to promise collision and
not equilibrium. The whole aspect of affairs is
such as to warrant the belief that the present gov-
ernment of Great Britain cannot last.

Great Barrington, p.t. Berkshire Co. Mass
Pop. 2,276.

Great Bay, a lake in N. H. formed by the
waters of the Swamscot, Winnicot and Lam-
prey rivers. It is 4 m. wide.xe2x80x94Another lake
connected with the Winipiseogee.

Grebenstein, a town of Germany, in Lower
Hesse, on the river Esse, 12 m. N. N. W. of

Greece, a territory of the S. E. extremity of
Europe, and 2,000 years ago the most celebrated
portion of that quarter ofthe globe, it having suc-
cessfully combated the myriad armies of Persia
and the east, and extended its arts and its arms
eastward to the banks of the Indus. As the glo-
ry of Egypt declined, that of Greece rose to its
meridian, to be eclipsed in its turn by the as-
cendancy of Rome, till in the 15th century it be-
came tributary to the Turks. The main land of
Greece extends from the lat. of 36. 25. to 42. N.
or about 400 m., and is about 110 in mean breadth.
In the days of Grecian celebrity, it was divided
into four great parts, viz. Macedonia, Thessaly,
Livadia, and the Peloponnesus, exclusive of tne


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