arsenal, a bank, and a handsome exchange.
The established religion is Lutheran, but all
denominations are tolerated. Beside the five
principal churches, there are eleven smaller ones
for particular occasions, some of which belong to
hospitals of which there are a great number. It
has a library containing about 100,000 volumes.
The cathedral of Our Lady is a very fine structure.
The city is well fortified, and on the ramparts are
handsome walks, planted with rows of trees.
On the east is the suburb of St. George, and on
the west the Hamburger Berg. Hamburg, from
it.s situation, has all possible advantages for for-
eign and domestic trade ; particularly from its
communication, by the Elbe, with some of the
principal navigable rivers of Germany; and hence
it is one ofthe most commercial places in Europe.
The number of vessels that frequent its port is
about 2,000. It is distinguished for its sugar-
refinery, and it has manufactures of cotton
stockings, gold and silver lace, silk, linen, hand-
kerchiefs, sail-cloths, thread, ribands, and velvets.
The commerce however, received a severe shock
in 1806; and since that the city itself has been
almost reduced to ruin. Previous to the year
1806, this city became the depot of all the con-
tinental commerce, and numbers of merchants
flocked here from every part of Europe, bring-
ing their property along with them, as to a place
free from military sway, and secure from the
warlike commotions which then agitated Europe ;
hut after the defeat of the Prussians at the battle
of Jena, the French took possession of it, and af-
terwards annexed it to the empire. In 1513, on
the advance of the Russians into Germany, the
French evacuated the town, and the Russians
immediately entered. In May following, the
French laid siege to it for more than a month,
when the Russians finding it impossible to defend
it any longer, retired. The French, on re-enter-
ing, began to strengthen the fortification ; and
after the battle of Leipzig, the commander,
marshal Davoust, hearing of the approach of
the allies, made preparations for a long siege.
For this purpose he destroyed the suburbs and
gardens; and expelled all the inhabitants who
were Dot able to provide provisions for six months.
On the restoration of the Bourbons, however,
the French garrison was withdrawn, and the
place delivered up to the allies in May, 1814;
since which it has recovered its former in-
dependence and activity. This city suffered
much fr-ea the pestilential cholera in the autumn
of 1531. It is 55 m. N. E. of Bremen, and 40
S. W. of Lnbeck. Pop. about 115,000. Lat. 53.
614.. long. t>. 5r.
Hamburg. Erie Co. N. Y. Pop. 3,348. Also
villages in Sussex Co. N. J. and Beckes Co. Pa.
Hamden. p.r Delaware Co. N. Y.
Hom'burs. a town of Franconia, in the princi-
pality of Fulia. seated on the Saale, 20 m. W. N.
W. of Schweinfurt.
Hamedn, a strong town of Lower Saxony, at
the extremity of the duchy of Brunswick, of
which it is the key. Here are manufactures of
stuffs, silks and stockings. The fortress surren-
dered to the French in 1506. It is situate at the
confluence of the Hamel with the Weser, 28 m.
S. W. of Hanover.
Ha-mi, a province of Western Tartary, sur-
rounded by deserts, yet accounted one of the most
delightful countries in the world. Its rice and
fruits, particularly the melons and dried raisins,
"rs in high esteem in China. It is tributary to
that country; and its capital is of the same name
Long. 91. 44. E., lat. 42. 55. N.
Hamilton, a town of Scotland, in Lanarkshire,
with a noble seat belonging to the duke of that-
name. It lias a trade in cabinet work, and the
making of shoes ; and the women are famous for
the spinning of linen yarn, and making thread
lace. It is seated on the Avon, near its conflux
with the Clyde. It has a handsome parish church,
and an elegant town house and prison, and a
commodious market place. It was made a royal
burgh in 1548 by Queen Mary. It is 11 m. S. E.
of Glasgow, and 37 W. S. W. of Edinburgh.
Pop. in 1801, 5,908, and in 1821, 7,613.
Hamilton, a county of East Tennessee, bounded
on the S. E. by the river Tennessee. Pop. 2,274.
The chief town, Brainerd, is 102 m. S. E. of
Hamilton, a county in Ohio, bounded on the S.
by the river Ohio, and intersected by the Great
Miami river. Pop. 52,321. Cincinnati is the
Hamilton, is also the name of a county in New
York. Pop. 1,324. The court house in the cen-
tre of the county, is 80 m. N. W. by N. of Alba-
ny. There are several townships of the same
name in Lower Canada.
Hamilton, p.t. Essex Co. Mass. 10 m. N. W.
Salem. Pop. 743. Also a p.t. Madison Co. N. Y.
Pop. 3,220 Also villages in St. Lawrence and
Cataraugus Cos. N. Y. Also townships and vil-
lages in Franklin and Northampton Cos. Pa., Mar-
tin Co. N. C., Warren and Franklin Cos. Ohio.
HamUtonrille, a village of Huntington Co. Pa.
Hampden, p.t. Penobscot Co. Me. Pop.
Hampden, a county of Massachusetts. It lies
on both sides of Connecticut river and is bounded
S. by the state of Connecticut. It contains 585
sq. m. and a pop. of 31,640. Springfield is the
Hammam, Leef, a town of the kingdom of Tu-
nis, celebrated for its baths; 12 m. W. of Cabes.
Hammam, Meskouteen, a town of the kingdom
of Tunis, with a celebrated hot bath, seated near
a mountain, rich in lead ore, 16 m. S. of Tunis.
Hammersmith, a large village in Middlesex, Eng.
seated on the north bank of the Thames, and one
of the appendages of the metropolis, 3 m. and
a half west of Hyde Park Corner. Here also is
a nunnery, established originally as a boarding
schoo 1 for young ladies of the Roman Catholic
persuasion; and toward the river are a numbei
of handsome seats and villas. Here is a charity
school, a workhouse, and several places of wor
ship for dissenters. The chapel is near the cen
tre of the town. Here also was the celebrated
villa of Brandenburg House, in which her late
majesty Queen Caroline died. Pop. in 1801,
5,600, and 1821, 8,809.
Hamont, a town of Netherlands in the late bish
opric of Liege, 20 m. W. by N. of Ruremonde.
Hampshire, a maritime county of England,
bounded on the N. bv Berkshire, E. by Surry and
Sussex, S. by the English Channel, W. by Dor
setshire and Wiltshire. It is nearly square, ex-
cept a projection on the S. W.; is divided into 39
small hundreds, and 253 parishes; and has one
city, Winchester, and 20 market towns. It
sends, with the Isle of Wight, 26 members to
Parliament. This county has a great variety of
soils, but the principal part is chalk. The Dor-
setshire border has large tracts of heath; and to-
ward the sea are great quantities of marsh bind,